Hi cody89, Sorry to hear about your problem.
I'm no expert on this stuff but I've had some of my stuff go missing like that to so I'll toss in my .02¢ worth and see if it might help you.
When you say "I am currently unable to delete desktop icons." are you saying that if you right click on an Icon that it doesn't give you the option to delete it?"
I can find, and open my Calculator hiding out at C:\Windows\system32\cal.exe All you have to do if yours is there is right click that little bugger and select "Create Shortcut" from the menu. Then Drag\Drop that thing to where ever you need it. I'm not too sure how you will get it back where it goes on the accessories thingy though.
My MS Paint is hiding out in that same system32 folder too, but I have no idea where that Recycle Bin thing might be hiding out at.
Have you tried --> Start>Control Panel>Add\Remove Programs>Add/Remove Windows Components to see if Accessories and Utilities is kind of grayed out? If it is then you might need to run it to get your stuff back.
I don't know what to say about the photo thing other than I use MS paint to save all of my pics and lots of them are .bmp until I select a folder to stash them in and then reset the file type to .jpg just before I save them.
Well that's all from me. Hope someone with more knowhow than me comes by who can help you out.