Okay than if UPS did not damagage laptop, what did?
Certainly, a UPS could go bad and destroy anything plugged into it, but again, I think that would be extremely rare. A damaged UPS "should" just shut down as a precautionary measure, not go on an destructive rampage. So my "guess" is the UPS failed to protect your notebook from some extreme anomaly that came through the power lines, and that anomaly damaged the notebook's internal charging/power regulation circuits.
You can test your UPS by plugging a couple lamps with 100w bulbs in to the UPS, then pull the UPS power cord from the wall. If the lights stay lit, your UPS is probably fine.
Not all notebooks are designed to run with power supply only (no battery) so you may need to verify that with your manual. If it is supposed to run without a battery installed, but does not, then something is wrong with the power supply, or the notebook. If the manual says a battery must be in the circuit at all times, you might try another battery - but obviously, most folks don't have them laying around, and they are not cheap so buying a new one just for testing under these uncertain circumstances would be a financial risk.
Your best option may be to take it to a shop where the technician can open it on the bench, hook it up to known good power and see (measure) what's going on. Sorry I have no more to offer.