well, when you do the "alsamixer" test in a terminal while you have a headset plugged in. Does the sound play in the headset and not the speakers?
yes because the sound output would be re-routed to the headphones because of the way the connection is made inside the socket.
eg. :- http://www.instructa...l-the-output-o/
notice in the picture where you have the hook shape connection, touching the jack plug and just above that there is a short connection that drops down and rests on the hook when the jack is removed, now if that hook is broken like i think, it doesn't touch the jack pluck of the headphones so no sound out and also when the jack is removed and the short wire drops down it doesn't make a connection with anything so no sound out through the laptop speakers.
Anyway, you think this will work http://www.ebay.com/...&rt=nc&LH_BIN=1
yes that will get you sound, but i found something that may work without you buying anything but can't test it myself, that may get you sound out through your headphones by re-tasking the pink mic socket so it is used as a headphones out socket.
Note: as of Ubuntu 13.10, hda-jack-retask is part of alsa-tools. Just install the alsa-tools-gui package from the regular archive and start "hdajackretask".
so all you should need to do is install alsa-tools and gui then from the command line run hdajackretask set the mic to line out plug your headphones into it and play something to see if you get sound.
come to think about it, did you try the sound outputs on the back or were you just using the front case connections, i'd try using the motherboard back connections first and not trying to re-task the mic socket. just remembered your using a laptop, so ignore that and try re-tasking the mic port.
Edited by terry1966, 07 March 2016 - 06:37 PM.