Here are some questions that he had for me. Hopefully its not too much and redundant.
Is a BIOS that is hard coded on read only memory (NOT ON FLASH MEMORY) easy for malware to rewrite?
You have said that: "If it is possible, later, to make a bios read only, then it would be possible to reverse that." Now I did some online searches, and some sites said that old computers used to have their BIOS hard coded to read only memory at manufacturing, and that this could not be changed. Some sites said that read only BIOS were a preventative measure against BIOS rootkit infections. What I am trying to figure out is, if these old computers had their BIOS hard coded in read only memory at manufacturing, wouldn't this make it much more difficult for a hacker to modify it and install a BIOS
rootkit? Perhaps there is some crazy, intricate way to change it, but from what I've read, it doesn't seem like these old BIOS that were hard coded were just marked read only, they were designed to be written only once, and never to be rewritten. I think most, if not all, new BIOS are on flash memory that can be rewritten, and that these are therefore vulnerable to BIOS rootkits. But what is not clear is how easy it is, if it is possible, for some kind of virus or malware to alter those BIOS that were hard coded at manufacturing. Is it easy for the malware to simply mark them to be rewriteable, or is there something about the memory of the hard coded BIOS that make it impossible to rewrite. If it is nearly impossible to rewrite, then this would obviously be a major security advantage as it could avoid the dreaded BIOS rootkit that lets in so much other malware.
If it turns out that this memory type is very difficult or nearly impossible for malware to alter, then I would want to find a machine with a BIOS that is on this type of hard coded memory.
So the question is, is the old, hard coded, memory that is supposed to be read only, that BIOS of machines often had in the early days of PCs, now easy for malware to rewrite? I mean, have virus and malware writers found an easy way to hack and modify these old BIOS that are supposed to be read only? Or are they safe from being infected with BIOS rootkits from browsing the internet?
Are there any machines sold today that have a BIOS on Hard Coded Read Only Memory? Is the backup BIOS on dual BIOS Gigabyte machines, or Chromebooks, read only?
From what I've read, some machines, especially some Gigabyte machines, have dual BIOS. One BIOS is the working BIOS, and the other is a backup BIOS in case the working BIOS gets corrupted. It isn't clear to me if the backup BIOS is on flash memory or if it is on the old, hard coded, read only memory. I am trying to figure this out. Do any of the dual BIOS machines made now have their backup BIOS on the hard coded, read only memory? If so, would it be possible for me to remove the rewriteable BIOS and simply always use the backup BIOS, if it is on the hard coded read only memory? So the question is, are there any machines sold today that have a BIOS that is on hard coded read only memory? I am especially interested if one of the BIOS in the dual BIOS Gigabyte machines is on hard coded read only memory as from what I've read this might be true. But I can't confirm.
Can malware rewrite Write once only CDs and DVDs after their first writing?
Now it is my understanding that there are CDs and DVDs that can be written once only and not rewritten, and that if no malware is put on them during the first writing they would be safe. But if this isn't true, if it is possible for malware to edit a write once only CD or DVD after its first writing. For example, lets say I download Skype and bum it to a write once only CD. For purposes of argument, assume that this download was safe, that the only thing that got on it this time was the Skype download and no infections got on it. That is only the Skype download was burned to it. If I later use that CD on another machine, can malware on the new machine install itself on the CD? Or is it the case that the CD that is designed to be written only once not rewriteable after that first time? What I mean by this is, can malware from the internet easily rewrite a write once only CD or DVD after it has already been burned and removed for the first machine? Maybe there is some very bizarre, intricate way for this to be done, but I mean generally, is it easy for virus writers to write malware that can do this?
So the question is, after a write once only CD or DVD is written to, then removed from the computer, can a malware program edit it? Or is it basically extremely difficult or impossible to change after the first writing?
Same as Question 3, except for store bought programs on CD or DVD, like Microsoft Office 2007 Professional.
If I use a store bought program, like one I bought long ago, Microsoft Office 2007 Professional, can malware infect and change the CD or DVD that it is on so that it can infect other computers? I mean, if I use it on one computer, then uninstall it from an old machine and install it on a new machine, could it possibly transmit malware to the new machine? I suppose the answer to this is the same as the answer to Question 3, but I am not certain.
Firmware on Printers, Scanners, mouse, keyboard, monitors, usb cd drives and other peripherals, can it be infected and spread the infection?
I used to think that all malware would infect the hard drive of a computer. It is only recently that I've learned that rootkits can infect the BIOS and the Network Interface Card of a computer. This is pretty scary. I don't know much about what memory, if any, peripherals like scanners and printers have, and
if this memory can be infected. Do printers, scanners, routers, and other peripherals have some sort of memory, like the BIOS does? Can it be infected and spread an infection? In other words, if I have one printer and one scanner, and I use them for all of my 4 computers, can they spread an infection? Or do they not have memory or don't have memory that can be hacked and modified?
So the question is, do computer peripherals have memory that can be infected?
Removing soldiered down WIFI. I was considering getting a NUC. However, all of the NUC's available seem to either have VPRO or have WIFI that has been soldiered down into the unit. Removing VPRO would obviously be quite difficult. So I would prefer to buy one without VPRO and then, if possible, somehow cut out the WIFl.
So the question is, can a person remove a soldiered down WIFI card without ruining the computer? Are there tools which can safely cut the WIFI card out without destroying the rest of the computer?
Macrium Reflect, does it create an image of the BIOS? It isn't clear to me if Macrium Reflect creates an image of the BIOS? How does it do this? Also, how
would one wipe down the BIOS in the way that a hard drive is wiped down?