Your questions are a bit -- broad. But Ill see what I can do.
The beanies under your avatar are just a graphical representation of the number of posts that you have made here. To get more, you post more. Since you have already hit the 100 mark, I dont believe you will get the last one until you hit 1000.
Staff members is a bit harder.
Malware staff (Trusted Helpers) become staff members by going through Geek U or by going through training at another recognized institution. Experts are chosen from the Trusted Helpers once they have achieved considerable knowledge in the field. Both of these titles are held by people who help our users with their malware problems.
Hardware/OS staff (Trusted Techs) become staff by simply helping and giving good advice. These folks help with almost any computer problem.
Moderators are generally picked from the staff, although that does not have to be the case. These folks work to keep the forum working smoothly. They edit bad posts, close finished posts, and oversee their part of the forum. You will generally see Off Topic Moderator or Geek U Moderator. Thats how you can tell what they do.
Global Moderators are generally picked from the moderator staff. They oversee the entire forum without boundaries. Their job is also to make sure that the forum runs smoothly.
Admins are in in charge of the entire forum. We oversee all aspects of the site.
Does that help?