Ok this error I have recieved only once while using Windows XP. The way I fixed the problem was simply to reinstall Windows. This error will happen if you are unlucky and had a Windows crash as you described and the hard drive has a hard shutdown. <Happened to me when coming out of standby and had to reboot.>
What happens is whenever you turn on your computer, all of your harddrives are mounted, and whenever you shutdown the harddrives are unmounted<as shown in Linux>. Just make sure whenever using any O/S that you properly shutdown the computer, never push in the button, unless this is your only option.
Saving Info ---
I would try unplugging the crashed harddrive and changing the cable select to slave and then placing the harddrive in a turned off working computer. If you're lucky the harddrive will still work and you can simply copy the files from that harddrive.
I have an extra backup harddrive for all my information so it was no problem reinstalling windows, but i'm guessing you do not. So to fix the problem I would consult the harddrive manufacturer website. Also you can prolly F5 into safemode and simply replace this file, system restore to previous date, windows xp reinstall.
Hope any of this information helps from future harddrive crashes!