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Scottish Interesting Facts

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cheyenne 09

cheyenne 09

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Scottish People Who Helped Change the World

Sir Henry Duncan Littlejohn (1826 - 1914)

Medical and health pioneer. Born in Edinburgh and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, later becoming Professor of Medical Jurisprudence (1897). As Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health (1862) he improved sanitation and instituted the legal requirement to notify occurrences of infectious diseases, allowing the authorities to act to prevent epidemics.

Sir Patrick Manson (1844 - 1922)

Born in Old Meldrum, Aberdeenshire, he was a pioneer of Tropical Medicine, developing it as a distinct field of study. Showed that Malaria was carried by mosquito, and also did valuable research on sleeping sickness and beri-beri.

Sir James Young Simpson (1811 - 1870)

Obstetrician, and son of a baker. Pioneer in the use of anaesthetics, particularly chloroform, developing its use in surgery and midwifery. He championed its use against medical and religious opposition. Queen Victoria used chloroform during child-birth, and this brought general acceptance. Also pioneered obstetric techniques and responsible for much reform of hospital practice.

William Hunter (1718 - 1783)

Pioneer in the field of Obstetrics. Born in Lanarkshire and educated at Glasgow University, he gained his reputation in the teaching hospitals of London. Perhaps best known for his collection of anatomical specimens, coins and minerals which he left to the Glasgow Museum which took its name from his, the Hunterian Museum.

Elsie Inglis (1864 - 1917)

A leading surgeon and suffragette. She improved maternity facilities and fought for better healthcare for women in Scotland. She set up a maternity hosptial in Edinburgh staffed only by women. During the First World War, she set up hospitals for the troops in Serbia and Russia.

Mary Slessor (1848 - 1915)

A Dundee mill girl who became a great missionary in West Africa. Called 'Great Mother' by Nigerians, she provided healthcare and education and stamped out barbaric tribal practices such as human sacrifice.

Sir Robert Sibbald (1641 - 1722)

Born in Edinburgh, educated at the High School and Edinburgh University. Established the first botanical garden in the city. Founded the Royal College of Physicians. Was also Cartographer-Royal for Scotland writing books on the topography of Fife and Stirlingshire.

Charles Lawson (1794 - 1873)

Botanist and Traveller. Son of an Edinburgh seed merchant, Lawson introduced the Austrian Pine and Cypress trees to Britain. The now-popular Cypress variety he introduced still bears his name, Cupressus Lawsonii.

William Paterson (1658 - 1719)

Merchant and Politician. Born in Tinwald, Dumfriesshire, he founded the Bank of England in 1694. He was also the main proponent of the Darien Farce, which involved establishing a Scottish trading colony in Central America. The colony was a disaster, and Paterson's wife and child died. He promoted the Union of the Parliaments, which was at least in part driven by an attempt to make good his and Scotland's losses at Darien.

John Smith (1938 - 1994)

Member of Parliament and Leader of the Labour Party. Widely respected for his integrity, intelligence and humanity. Died in opposition, while widely expected to become a British Prime Minister.

Sir James Clark Ross (1800 - 1862)

Antarctic Explorer. Claimed Antarctica for Queen Victoria in 1841. Named the twin Antarctic volcanoes after his ships Erebus and Terror. Gave his name to the Ross Sea, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Dependency.

John Napier (1550 - 1617)

Mathematician and Astronomer. Devised "Napier's Rods" or "Napier's Bones" which permitted easy multiplication by addition, and this led to him defining the concept of logarithms. Also invented the decimal point.

James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879)

Mathematician and Physicist. Contributed significantly to the study of electro-magnetism and prepared the way for quantum physics. Ranks along with Newton and Einstein as one of the World's greatest physicists.

James Gregory (1638 - 1675)

Inventor of the reflecting telescope, which was developed three years later by the Englishman Sir Isaac Newton.

John Witherspoon (1723 - 1794)

Clergyman born in Gifford, East Lothian. Minister at Beith, then Paisley. Emigrated to U.S.A. in 1768 to become President of Princeton University (then the College of New Jersey). He taught and influenced many future leaders of the US. Helped frame the US Declaration of Independence and was one of the signatories. Also coined the word "Americanism".

John Paul Jones (1747 - 1792)

Born in Dumfriesshire, he joined the navy and spent time in Russia and France during the French Revolution. Most notably he established the U.S. Navy.

John Muir (1834 - 1914)

Naturalist and Conservationist, born in Dunbar. Founder of the U.S. National Park system and regarded as the father of the modern environmental movement.

Eric Henry Liddell (1902 - 1945)

Record-breaking athlete who won Gold and Bronze Medals in the 1924 Paris Olympic Games. His life is remembered in the 1981 film "Chariots of Fire".

Earl Haig (1861 - 1928)

Field Marshall. Commanded the allied troops on the Western Front during the First World War. Later criticised for conduct of the campaign because of the very high casualty figures. Founded the Earl Haig Fund for the assistance of disabled ex-servicemen (poppy appeal).

Sir Thomas Lipton (1850 - 1931)

Grocer and entrepreneur. Born in Port Glasgow, Lipton revolutionised the retail grocery trade, developing many marketing techniques which are used by supermarkets today. He ensured supplies by buying, for example, tea plantations in Sri Lanka. He quickly became a millionaire, enabling him to challenge consistently but unsuccessfully for the Americas Cup (yachting), he also started the World Cup in football (soccer) in 1910. He left a substantial benefaction to the City of Glasgow.

Allan Ramsay (1681 - 1758)

Poet and bookseller, born in Leadhills. Also founded the first travelling library in the U.K.

James Small (1730 - 1793)

Inventor of the iron plough, replacing the existing cumbersome and less robust wooden ploughs.

Sir William Alexander Smith (1854 - 1914)

Born in Thurso, Caithness. Founded the "Boy's Brigade in 1883".

Sir Walter Scott (1771 - 1832)

Great Scottish patriot, writer and poet. Educated at the Old High School in Edinburgh, he then studied Law at the University of Edinburgh and became an advocate. He did much towards identifying and nurturing a Scottish cultural identity. His literary works include the Waverley Novels, but also he was a translator, biographer (of Napoleon) and passionate collector of all things Scottish. He was buried in the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey.
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cheyenne 09

cheyenne 09

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Scottish Recipe's

Like many traditional Scottish recipes this uses basic ingredients which were always ready to hand.

Potato Scones

Recipe Ingredients:

Half pound (225g) boiled and mashed potatoes
2.5oz (65g) flour
3 tablespoons melted butter
Half teaspoon salt
Preparation Method:

Mash the potatoes while they are still warm and add the butter and salt. Add in enough flour to make it a pliable dough but without making it too dry. The type of potato will affect this. Turn out onto a floured surface and roll until about quarter of an inch thick. Cut into six inch circles and then into quarters. piercing all over with a fork and cook in a heavy pan which has been lightly greased. Cook each side for about three minutes or until golden brown. If you want to really add the calories, put cheese between two scones and cook until the cheese has melted.

Scotch Pie

"Wee Scotch Pies" pies are eaten all over Scotland.
Made with hot-water or raised crust, they are a traditional favourite.

Makes about 4 pies.

Recipe Ingredients:

1 lb lean lamb, or mutton free from fat, bone, gristle, etc.
1 teaspoon. Worcestershire sauce
1 small minced onion or shallot
� teaspoon. ground nutmeg
4 tablespoons stock (can use tinned beef broth)
salt and pepper to taste
Hot Water Crust Pastry
1 lb plain flour
� teaspoon. salt
1 cup water
� cup beef dripping or lard

Preparation Method:

To make pie pastry, bring fat and water to boil in saucepan. Put flour and salt in a basin, make a hole in the middle.
Pour boiling water and fat into hole. Mix with a spatula until cool enough to handle.
Form quickly into a ball before fat hardens too much.
Turn on to a floured board, knead well, pat into a flat shape.
Divide into halves, put one half aside, keep warm.
Roll other half out to make a large oval.
Stand a small jar (about 3 inches across) in the middle.
Mold pastry up the sides to 3 inches high to make filling holder.
When it stays up firmly, remove jar and repeat process.
Roll out saved halves, cutting them into rounds to fit filling holders.
Cut lamb into very small pieces or chop into mince.
Mix all filling ingredients together and fill pastry, filling holders.
Dampen edges, pinch tops on.
Make a slit in centre of each top to let steam out.
Brush tops with milk or beaten egg.
Bake for 45 minutes on baking sheet in oven at 250�F (120�C).

This is another popular cake which is found in tearooms across Scotland. This particular version makes a very moist version.

Recipe Ingredients:

4oz (100g or 1 stick) margarine
4 0z (100g or half cup) soft brown sugar
1 tablespoon treacle (molasses)
6oz (150g or 1� cups) plain flour
2oz (50g or half cup) oatmeal
1oz (25g or quarter cup) bran
3 level teaspoons of ground ginger
1 level teaspoon mixed spice (allspice)
1 level teaspoon bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)
2 eggs
2 fluid oz (50ml or quarter cup) milk
4 fluid oz (100ml or half cup) orange juice
Preparation Method:

Preheat the oven to 160C/320F/Gas Mark 3 (reduce the temperature by 10C or equivalent if a fan assisted oven).
Mix the flour, bran, spices and soda together in a bowl. Put the milk and orange juice in another container and lightly beat in the eggs. Put the margarine, sugar and treacle/molasses in a saucepan on a low heat and stir until the sugar has dissolved. Remove from the heat and stir in the dry ingredients and then add the eggs/milk/juice mixture.

Pour the mixture into a 2lb loaf tin lined with baking parchment and bake for around 40 minutes. Alternatively, if you want to make iced gingerbread squares, put the mixture in a 9" (23cm) square, lined tin and bake for 35 minutes. When it's cold, use 8oz (250g or one and a quarter cups) icing sugar (frosting) and enough water to make a thick, spreadable icing.

Sticky Toffee Pudding
This is a popular dessert in Scotland amongst people who have a sweet tooth and don't mind a few extra calories.

Recipe Ingredients:

2 oz (60g or � stick) soft margarine
1� oz (50g or generous one third stick) butter
7 oz (200g or one cup) white sugar
8 oz (250g or two cups) plain flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)
1 egg whisked
6 oz (185g or 1� cups) stoned dates
1 teaspoon vanilla essence
2� oz (65g or one third cup) light brown sugar
2 tablespoons double cream
� pint (250ml) boiling water
Preparation Method:

Cream together the margarine and sugar. Sift together the flour and baking powder. Beat the whisked egg into a creamed mixture with a little of the flour and baking powder and continue beating for about a minute before adding the rest of the flour/baking powder.
Chop the dates and flour lightly. Pour the boiling water over the dates and mix in the bicarbonate of soda (baking soda in US) and add the date mixture to the batter and mix well.

Place in a buttered tin (or one lined with baking parchment) and bake for 40 minutes at 350F (175C or Gas Mark 4).

When the pudding is cooked, heat the brown sugar, butter and cream and simmer gently for 3 minutes. Pour over the pudding and place under a grill until it starts to bubble. Then serve.


Toad-in-the-Hole used to be a very popular dish but seems to have fallen out of favour in recent years. Which is a shame, as it is a really tasty and substantial meal using link sausages and eggs.

Recipe Ingredients:

� pound (250g) pork link sausages
3 oz (90g or � cup) flour
10 fluid oz (300ml or One and a quarter cups) milk
Two large eggs
4 oz (125g or one stick or half cup) grated strong Cheddar cheese
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
Pinch of salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste
Cooking oil
Preparation Method:

Preheat oven to 220C (425F or Gas Mark 7).
Using a 9-inch ovenproof skillet (or a deep-dish pie pan), heat the cooking oil. Add the sausages, rolling them in the oil and brown on all sides in oven (for about 20 minutes) or on top of stove, turning every 5 minutes.
Sift flour and a pinch of salt into a mixing bowl and stir in the grated cheese. In a smaller bowl, beat milk, eggs, and parsley, and season generously with salt and pepper. Stir a small amount of milk mixture into the flour to make a smooth, very heavy batter and let stand 5 minutes before stirring in remaining milk mixture.
There are different ways of arranging the sausages in the deep-dish pie pan. Some people cut up the sausages and arrange them at random. Others arrange the sausages like spokes of a wheel evenly spaced in pan. Whatever method is used, pour the batter over them. Lower oven heat to 200C (400 degrees or Gas Mark 6) and bake until batter is puffed and browned (about 30 minutes).

Sliced Sausage
Here is a recipe for square sliced sausage - often called Lorne sausage.

Recipe Ingredients:

2 lb Ground/minced Beef
2 lb Ground Pork
3 Cups Fine Bread Crumbs
2 teaspoon Pepper
2 teaspoon Nutmeg
3 teaspoon Coriander
3 teaspoon Salt
1 Cup of water.
Preparation Method:

The beef and pork should not be too lean or the sausage may be too dry.
Mix really well by hand then place in an oblong pan about 10" x 4" x 3". You might need two pans. Place in the freezer for a little while till it's just starting to set. Remove it and cut them to the thickness you like and put them into freezer bags and put them back in the freezer. When required, defrost and fry in a little fat or oil until brown and cooked through.

Great for breakfast with Ham Scottish for ( Bacon ) and Mushrooms and Tattie Scones or Potato Scones


Edited by cheyenne 09, 24 February 2007 - 03:06 AM.

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cheyenne 09

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Scotch Eggs
Here is a simple recipe for making a traditional Scottish dish which is still popular served either hot, or cold at picnics.

Recipe Ingredients:

1lb sausage meat
5 hard boiled eggs, with shells removed
1 large raw egg
3oz approx of dry breadcrumbs
Pinch of mace, salt, freshly ground pepper
Small quantity of flour
1 tablespoon water
Preparation Method:

Dust the hard boiled eggs in a little flour. Mix the mace, salt and pepper with the sausage meat and divide into five equal portions. Place on a floured surface. Wrap/mould the sausage meat round the egg, making sure there are no gaps. Beat the egg and water together and coat the meat-covered egg with this and then breadcrumbs (you may have to press the crumbs onto the meat). Deep fry in hot oil (360F/185C) taking care as you put the eggs into the oil. Cook for about 5/6 minutes. If you don't have a deep fat fryer, they can be cooked in oil in a frying pan, turning frequently to ensure the meat is fully cooked.
Drain and serve hot or allow to cool and keep in a refrigerator for a cold snack later.

Pickled Onions
For many people in Scotland a dish of fried fish and chips (French fries) would not be complete without a pickled onion. Since they are stored in glass jars they are not easily obtained by mail order. So here is a simple way of making pickled onions for yourself.

Recipe Ingredients:

4 pounds small onions
4 oz salt
Vary the quantities as required but keep the same ratio of onions and salt.
Preparation Method:

Clean a quantity of small onions and soak overnight in salted water.
Rinse thoroughly and pat dry. Place tightly in a sterilised jar with vinegar totally covering the onions.
Store in a cool, dry, dark location for one month. Use within six months.

Oatmeal was once described as "the backbone of many a sturdy Scotsman". Porridge was one of the main ways of eating oats, in days gone by. There is a lot of mystique about making porridge and lots of traditions associated with cooking and eating it (most of which can be ignored). The important thing is to obtain good quality medium-ground oats (rather than rolled oats) and to keep stirring it to avoid solid lumps.

Recipe Ingredients:

(Sufficient for two people):
One pint (half litre) water; some people use half water and half milk
2.5 oz (2.5 rounded tablespoons) medium-ground oats
Pinch of salt

Preparation Method:

Bring the water (or water and milk) to a good rolling boil, preferably in a non-stick pan. Slowly pour the oatmeal into the boiling liquid, stirring vigorously with a wooden spoon all the time. Keep stirring until it has returned to the boil again, reduce the heat, cover the pan and simmer very gently for 15 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the salt at this point and simmer and stir for a further 5/10 minutes (time depends on the quality of the oats). It should be a thick but pourable consistency. Serve hot in wooden bowls if you have them.

Stirring the porridge should always be clockwise (though going in different directions probably mixes more efficiently).

Porridge used to be served with separate bowls of double cream. A spoonful of porridge (in a horn spoon) was dipped into a communal bowl of cream before eating.

Porridge is eaten standing up. While some people have suggested that this is out of respect for the noble dish, it probably arose from busy farmers doing other things while eating their morning porridge - or as an aid to digestion.

While some people frown at the idea of Salt on your porridge but that is how it is prefered in Scotland you can of course put sugar on your porridge instead of salt. Each to their own!

Porridge used to be poured into a "porridge drawer" and, once it had cooled, it could be cut up into slices. These were easier to carry than brittle oatcakes.

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cheyenne 09

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Extremely Delicious Chocolate Recipe's for Chocoholics Everywhere

Warning These Recipes Are Seriously Delicious

Chocolate Meringue

6 Egg Whites
140gm/5oz. Caster Sugar
140gm/5oz. Icing Sugar
55gm/2oz. Cocoa Powder ( Seived together with the Icing Sugar )
1 Pot of Chocolate Hazelnut Spread
55gm/2oz. Chopped Nuts
285ml/ 1/2pt Whipped Cream
225gm/ 1/2lb. Strawberries
Mint Leaves

1. Whisk the Egg Whites until stiff
2. Slowly add the Caster Sugar bit by bit While still Whisking , until the Mixture is quite stiff
3. Fold in the Icing Sugar and Cocoa Powder
4. Pipe out 2 Squares with a Shell Design on a Baking Tray Lined with Bakewell Paper . Sprinkle with Chopped Nuts
5. Cook in an Oven 150oC/300oF Gas Mark 2 For 1 and Half Hours
6. Allow to Cool
7. Stand Chocolate Hazelnut pot in a Pan of Hot Water to Melt and Spread over one of the Chocolate Meringue Layers

Chocolate Fudge

115gm/4oz. Plain Chocolate
55gm/2oz. Butter
2 Tablespoons Milk
1 teaspoon Vanilla Essence
450gm/1lb. Icing Sugar

1. Break up the Chocolate and Melt it with the Butter in a Pan Placed over a Bowl of Hot Water Stir Occasionally to Help the Chocolate to Soften.
2. Take the Bowl off the Heat and Stir in the Milk and Vanilla Essence.
3. Gradually beat in the Icing Sugar Sieving as it is Needed.
4. Blend thoroughly if this is Difficult return the Bowl to the Heat for a While and Keep Beating.
5. Turn the Fudge into a Lightly greased Shallow Tin and Level the surface with a Palette Knife.
6. Leave to Cool then Cut into Squares.

Chocolate Coffee Cake

170gm/6oz. Margarine
170gm/6oz. Chocolate
170gm/6oz. Caster Sugar
3 Eggs
85gm/3oz. Self Raising Flour

1. Melt the Margarine and the Chocolate together in a Pan then add the Sugar
2. Allow to Cool Slightly then add the Beaten Eggs and gently Fold in a Greased 7" /18cm Cake Tin ( or 2 sandwich tins ) for 45 Minutes Appox. at 190oC/375oF Gas Mark 5

225gm/8oz. Butter
440gm/14oz. Icing Sugar
55gm/2oz. Coffee Powder
3 Tablespoons Brandy Essence

1. Cream the Butter
2. Sieve Icing Sugar and Coffee Powder and add Gradually to the Creamed Butter
3. Add the Brandy a little at a Time
4. Use to fill and Decorate the Chocolate Cake as Required

Chocolate Chip Log

1 Packet Chocolate Chip Cookies
1 Dish sweet Sherry Essence
340gm/12oz. Whipped Double Cream Cocoa Powder
1 Chocolate Flake

1. Dip each Biscuit individually into the Sherry Essence Do not Soak
2. Sandwich the biscuits together with a Little Cream and Place on a Long Serving Dish.
3. Cover the outside with the Remaining Cream
4. Mark with a Fork to Make it look like a Log
5. Place Cocoa Powder in a Sieve and Gently Dust the Log with the Powder
6. Crumble the Chocolate Flake on Top if Required

White Chocolate Terrine

1 teaspoon Powdered Gelatine
340ml/12fl. oz Double Cream - Whipped
285gm/10oz. White Chocolate ( in small Pieces )
55ml/2fl. oz Plus 3 Tablespoons Water
30ml/1fl. oz Liquid Glucose
3 Egg Yolks
Mint Leaves to Decorate

Chocolate Sauce
145ml/1/4pt. Water
115gm/4oz. Caster Sugar
55gm/2oz. Cocoa Powder
1 Tablespoon Liquid Glucose

1. Soak the Gelatine in 3 Tablespoons Cold Water
2. Bring 55ml/2fl. oz Water and Glucose to the Boil
3. Remove from the Heat and Add the Gelatine and Chocolate Stir Until the Mixture is Smooth Returning to a Gentle Heat if Necessary
4. When the Mixture is Cold but Not Setting Add the Egg Yolks and Fold in the Whipped Cream
5. Turn into a 1lb. Loaf Tin Which has Been Previously Lined With Cling Film and Leave to Set for 24 Hours
6. To Make the Sauce Simply Dissolve the Sugar and Glucose in Warm Water Bring to the Boil and Whisk in the Cocoa Sieve Before Use

Enjoy :whistling:
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cheyenne 09

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The Thistle National Embelm Of Scotland

Weedy species of Cirsium, Carduus, Echinops, Sonchus, and other plant genera of the family Asteraceae. The word thistle most often refers to prickly leaved species of Carduus and Cirsium, which have dense heads of small, usually pink or purple flowers. Plants of the genus Carduus, sometimes called plumeless thistles, have spiny stems and flower heads without ray flowers.

Scottish thistle is also called cotton thistle or Scott's thistle. Plants produce a large rosette of spiny, silvery-white foliage the first year of growth. The following year thick triangular stems grow up to 6 feet tall and are topped with lavender thistle-like flowers. They prefer full sun and well-drained soil. It may become a weed if plants are allowed to self seed freely. Trim the flower heads before they set seed to control it.

Every school-child in Scotland learns the legend of how the thistle, their national emblem, saved the country in the Middle Ages, when the Scots and Norsemen were at war. Under cover of darkness, the Norsemen managed to land unobserved on the coast of Scotland. Removing their boots, they crept on bare feet toward the unsuspecting Scottish army. Suddenly, a sharp cry of pain shattered the stillness: A Norse soldier had stepped on a thistle. Thus alerted to the surprise attach, the Scots sprang into action and drove the invaders from their shores.

The Scotch Thistle, or Cotton Thistle (Onopordon Acanthium) is one of the most beautiful of British plants, not uncommon in England, by roadsides and in waste places, particularly in chalky and sandy soils in the southern counties.

it's Description is a biennial, flowering in late summer and autumn. The erect stem, 18 inches to 5 feet high, is very stout and much branched, furnished with wing-like appendages (the decurrent bases of the leaves) which are broader than its own diameter. The leaves are very large, waved and with sharp prickles on the margin. The flowers are light purple and surrounded with a nearly globular involucre, with scales terminating in strong, yellow spines.

The whole plant is hoary with a white, cottony down, that comes off readily when rubbed, and causes the young leaves to be quite white. From the presence of this covering, the Thistle has obtained its popular name of Cotton or Woolly Thistle.

This species is one of the stiffest and most thorny of its race, and its sharp spines a description of the plant as 'set full of most horrible sharp prickles, so that it is impossible for man or beast to touch the same without great hurt and danger.'

Which is the true Scotch Thistle even the Scottish antiquarians cannot decide, but it is generally considered to be this species of Thistle that was originally the badge of the House of Stuart, and came to be regarded as the national emblem of Scotland. The first heraldic use of the plant would appear to be in the inventory of the property of James III of Scotland, made at his death in 1458, where a hanging embroidered with 'thrissils' is mentioned. It was, undoubtedly, a national badge in 1503, in which year Dunbar wrote his poetic allegory, 'The Thrissill and the Rose,' on the union of James IV and Princess Margaret of England. The Order of the Thistle, which claims, with the exception of the Garter, to be the most ancient of our Orders, was instituted in 1540 by James V, and revived by James VII of Scotland and Second of England, who created eight Knights in 1687. The expressive motto of the Order, Nemo me impune lacessit (which would seem to apply most aptly to the species just described), appears surrounding the Thistle that occupies the centre of the coinage of James VI. From that date until now, the Thistle has had a place on our coins.

Pliny states, and mediaeval writers repeat, that a decoction of Thistles applied to a bald head would restore a healthy growth of hair.

Medicinal Action and Uses The Ancients supposed this Thistle to be a specific in cancerous complaints, and in more modern times the juice is said to have been applied with good effect to cancers and ulcers.

A decoction of the root is astringent and diminishes discharges from mucous membranes.

on the authority of Dioscorides and Plinv, that 'the leaves and root hereof are a remedy for those that have their bodies drawn backwards,' and Culpepper explains that not only is the juice therefore good for a crick in the neck, but also as a remedy for rickets in children. It was considered also to be good in nervous complaints.

The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words onos (an [bleep]) and perdon (I disperse wind), the species being said to produce this effect in asses.

The juicy receptacle or disk on which the florets are placed was used in earlier times as the Artichoke - which is also a member of the Thistle tribe. The young stalks, when stripped of their rind, may be eaten like those of the Burdock.

The cotton is occasionally collected from the stem and used to stuff pillows, and the oil obtained from the seeds has been used on the Continent for burning, both in lamps and for ordinary culinary purposes. Twelve pounds of the seeds are said to produce, when heat is used in expression, about 3 lb of oil.

The greater number of the Thistles are assigned to the genus Carduus. The derivation of the name of this genus is difficult to determine; by some orders it is said to come from the Greek cheuro, a technical word denoting the operation of carding wool, to which process the heads of some of the species are applicable.


The Order of the Thistle represents the highest honour in Scotland, and it is second only in precedence to the Order of the Garter. The date of the foundation of the Order is not known, although legend has it that it was founded in 809 when King Achaius made an alliance with the Emperor Charlemagne. It is possible that the Order may have been founded by James III (1488-1513), who was responsible for changes in royal symbolism in Scotland, including the adoption of the thistle as the royal plant badge. It is said that James V bestowed the insignia of the 'Order of the Burr or Thissil' on Francis I of France in 1535. Around the time of the Reformation, the Order was discontinued.

Although some kind of Scottish Order of chivalry existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, or even much earlier, it was James II (James VII of Scotland) who established the Order with a statutory foundation under new rules in 1687 - to reward Scottish peers who supported the king's political and religious aims. (One statute required that the robe should be 'powdered over with thistles of gold'; a robe from that period still survives, scattered with more than 250 applied thistle motifs.) The statutes stated that the Order was 'to continue to consist of the Sovereign and twelve Knights-Brethren in allusion to the Blessed Saviour and his Twelve Apostles'.

After James II (and VII)'s abdication in 1688, the Order fell into disuse once more until it was revived by Queen Anne in 1703 - the number of knights remained at 12. Despite the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, the Old and Young Pretenders (Prince James and Prince Charles 'Bonnie Prince Charlie') appointed Knights of the Thistle (and Garter) in their exiles. The early Hanoverian kings also made use of the Order to reward Scottish nobles who supported the Hanoverian and Protestant cause.

Interest in the Order revived when George IV wore the Thistle during his visit to Scotland in 1822. A statute of 1827 established the complement of Knights Brethren at 16, and in 1987 a statute enabled ladies to join the Order. (Extra knights may be created by special statute.) The Princess Royal was invested in the Order of the Thistle in June 2001. In 1962, King Olav V of Norway became the first foreigner to be admitted to the Order for over 200 years.

The patron saint of the Order is St Andrew (also the patron saint of Scotland), who appears on the Order's badge. The breast star of the Order, instituted by George I in 1714, consists of a silver saltire with a pointed ray between each of the arms of the cross: at the centre is a gold medallion contained in an enamelled representation of the thistle, surrounded by a green border on which the Order's motto is written in gold. The motto is 'Nemo me impune lacessit' (No one harms me with impunity).

The chapel for the Order was to be at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, where James II had issued instructions in 1687 for the Abbey Church to be converted into the Chapel Royal and the Chapel of the Order. However, the political situation deteriorated and, by the time it was ready for use in December 1688, the furnishings and the stalls of the Chapel had been destroyed by a rioting mob. It was not until 1911 that the Order had a chapel, adjacent to St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh, in which its services and ceremonies could be held. When practicable, and when there is to be the installation of a new knight, a service of the Order is held each year during the week spent by The Queen at Holyrood.
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cheyenne 09

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The Other National Drink Of Scotland ( non - Alcoholic )

"Made in Scotland from Girders"

Barr's IRN-BRU, was created in Glasgow, Scotland in 1901. At the time it was just one of many mixed flavor drinks called Iron Brew, each manufacturer compiling his own recipe for an invigorating and refreshing beverage.

During World War II the soft drinks' industry was rationalised, which meant that Barr could no longer produce under its pre-war trade names. Like the rest of the companies in the industry Barr's became a numbered production unit. This meant producing only the soft drink specified by the government and selling them at fixed prices.

Iron Brew was not recognized as a "standard drink" and therefore disappeared from the grocery shop shelves for the duration of the war.
After the war, as the industry was getting ready to reintroduce its own products again, a disturbing proposal was put forward by the Government that food labeling regulations would be amended to ensure that the names on all foods would be in future literally true.

In the soft drinks industry this would have meant the demise of American Cream Soda as a name, since it didn't come from America and did not contain Cream. Ginger Ale could no longer be called Ginger Ale because it was not an Ale. Similarly, the name Iron Brew would have had to be changed since, although by law it had to contain 0.125mg of iron per fluid ounce, the drink was not actually brewed.

It was due to these proposals that Barr's came up with the idea of registering the phonetic equivalent of the general name "Iron Brew" as its own trade name. Thus in 1946 the name "IRN-BRU" came into being.

Before the war Barr's Iron Brew had captured the taste buds of Scotland and, after wartime restrictions were lifted, Barr's were quick to recapture the market. From the beginning IRN-BRU was heavily advertised.

The adventures of "Ba-Bru & Sandy" which ran from the 1930's were featured in many Scottish newspapers including "The Bulletin". This ran until the mid 1970's when the campaigns "Made in Scotland from Girders" and "Your Other National Drink" were developed.
Campaigns have evolved, for example the use of the distinctive 48 sheet poster advertisements shot in black and white.

Although other companies have tried to copy Barr's IRN-BRU the essence which makes it so popular remains a closely guarded secret. Whilst Chairman Robin Barr is now the only family board member to know the secret of the IRN-BRU recipe there will always be at any one time two board members who will know the recipe. The name of one of these board members will remain secret.

Also Available in These Countries
Barr's Irn-Bru is available in the America, the Republic of Ireland, Russia, Canada, South Africa, much of Europe and in some parts of Australia and Singapore.

We in Scotland Call our Bottled Soft drink's Ginger Rather than Soda or Juice or Pop
So if we wanted a Bottle of Irn Bru, we would ask for a bottle of Ginger

An Excellent Drink for Kids And Adults and the Only Soft Drink to out Sell Coke Cola Anyware in the World
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Although we dont ask for a bottle of ginger, we just ask for iron bru like any NORMAL person?

Edited by Muahahaha, 04 May 2007 - 02:45 AM.

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cheyenne 09

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Famous Scottish Explorer

Popular Quotation, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"

David Livingstone

Born 19 March 1813 in Blantyre, Scotland and Died 4 May 1873

David Livingstone joins the class of men who rank as the greatest explorers the world has ever produced. Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Charles Lindbergh, Edmund Hillary, and Neil Armstrong all have thrilled the world with their exploits. Add the name of Livingstone who opened up Africa to civilization and Christianity. No wonder the natives gave him the longest funeral procession in history, after burying his heart under a tree near the place where he died.

Livingstone traveled 29,000 miles in Africa, added to
the known portion of the globe about one million square
miles, discovered many famous lakes, the Zambesi and other rivers, was the first white man to see Victoria Falls, and probably the first individual to traverse the entire length of Lake Tanganyika. Had his health not failed he would surely have succeeded in also discovering the source of the Nile. He never lost sight of one of his great objects--bringing Christ to Africa--although healing and exploring were often the vehicles he used.

Born the second son of poor and pious parents, Neil
and Agnes (Hunter) Livingstone, he had three brothers and one sister. The seven were crowded into a two-room house. The father, while delivering tea to his customers, would also distribute religious books. At age ten young David was put into the cotton-weaving mills factory as a piecer to aid in the earnings of the family. He purchased Rudiments of Latin, which he used to help himself study that language at evening school. His hours at the factory were long, from 6 a.m. till 6 or 8 p.m. He attended evening school from 8 to 10 pm, then studied until midnight or later. Often he placed a book on a portion of the spinning jenny so he could catch a few sentences in passing.

By age 17 he was advanced to cotton-spinner and the
pay was such that he could put himself through medical school in Glasgow, entering in 1830. By the time he was 22 he had studied Greek, theology and medicine in college courses at Anderson's College and Glasgow University. During this time he was soundly converted at age 20 (1833) while reading the book Dick's Philosophy of the Future State. He continued his studies in London, where he received a medical degree with honors in 1840. During these years of study several things happened. First he applied to the London Missionary Society in 1838 and was provisionally accepted. Then, in 1839, God sent Robert Moffat into his life. Home on furlough, Moffat gave stirring messages that aroused Christian people to the missionary possibilities in Africa. One statement burned in Livingstone's soul and haunted him as he tossed on his bed. Moffat had said:
I have sometimes seen, in the morning sun, the smoke of a thousand villages, where no missionary has ever been. Livingstone decided it was God's will for him to go to Africa. Finally he received his appointment--Kuruman in
southern Africa--which Moffat had built and managed.
In 1841 he landed at Algoa Bay. Here two qualities of
his life manifested themselves immediately-characteristics
which were to demonstrate future greatness. One, the ability to cope with the difficulties of travel, whether by ox-wagon, horse or on foot. And, second, a quick understanding and sympathy for the native Africans.
Kuruman was 700 miles due north of Cape Town, so after a ten-week journey from Cape Town he arrived at Kuruman on July 31, 1841.

A few months after his arrival he made a journey with
another, covering over 700 miles, winning the confidence of the natives wherever he went by his medical activity. A second trip, alone, was made into the interior February to June, 1842. Returning, he stayed until February, 1843, teaching, preaching, caring for the sick, and building a chapel at an outstation. Then it was off to the interior again in search of a suitable location for another mission site. On this trip he discovered the beautiful valley of Mabotsa in the land of the Bakatia tribe. Upon his return in June 1843 when he finally found a letter authorizing his formation of a settlement in the regions beyond, he went back to Mabotsa in August to open a mission station there. Crowds of sick, suffering folk begged the great white doctor to heal them. At night around the fire he would listen to their stories, then he would tell them about Jesus. The only problem with the area was that it was infested with lions. Livingstone decided to rid the valley of them, for he heard that if one in a troop is killed, the rest leave the area. He took with him
Mebalwe, a native teacher--and here happened one of the most famous incidents of his entire life. Livingstone shot a lion. Then, as he began to reload his gun, the wounded lion sprang up on him and shook him as a cat does a rat. His left arm was crushed to the bone. Mebalwe grabbed his gun and, seeing the motion of the upraised gun, the lion left Livingstone and sprang upon Mebalwe, biting him through the thigh. Another man coming on with a spear was bitten as well before the lion
toppled over dead as a result of the bullet wound. Living-
stone's arm was stiff and useless from then on and, when he raised it, intense pain shot through his body. The left arm had loss of power the rest of his life. He returned to Kuruman to have his arm treated and to recuperate. Mary Moffat, Robert's daughter, was now looking prettier every day. The two began to be drawn to one another,
and so they made some plans. As soon as his arm healed, he would hasten back to Mabotsa to build a comfortable little stone house. Returning, he was married in March, 1844, with Robert Moffat performing the ceremony. Then came the 200-mile ox-wagon honeymoon. They remained at Mabotsa until 1845. A fellow missionary named Edwards, who had joined them, made life miserable for them, so they moved 40 miles away to Chonuane to work among the Bakwains. Misfortune struck them the second time. The lack of rain brought the threat of famine and a scarcity of water. One evening he announced he was
leaving and the next morning everyone was packed and ready to follow David Livingstone.

They found a suitable locality at Kologeng and set-
tled down for five years to what would be his last home on earth. By the time they left there he had four children, three of whom were boys. However, things became very parched for lack of rain. Rumors came about a huge waterfall. Livingstone was challenged to find it, believing the banks of a large lake would make an ideal location for a mission state.

Not only did mysterious Lake Ngami challenge him, but
there was a powerful chief of the Makololo tribe named
Sebutuane, still farther north, under whom he hoped to establish a mission station beyond the range of both the Boers and the militant tribe of the Matabele. On August 1, 1849, the Livingstone party came to the northeast end of Lake Ngami and were the first white people to see the lake. The presence of tsetse flies and the obstruction of a local chief prevented them from going the additional 200 miles north to meet Sebituane and so they retraced their steps with reluctance. They found the mission station destroyed by the Boers. In the spring of 1850 they were to start out again. As before Livingstone took his wife and children with him, fearful that they might be molested by the Boers. But, rather than the Boers, the disease malaria struck the party at Lake Ngami, and they had to turn back. Back at Kologeng a baby girl was
born to the Livingstones, but she soon took fever and died. They then retreated to Kuruman, where he remained with his family for rest until the spring of 1851.

In April of that year they set out again, determined not to return to Kologeng but to a hill region where health conditions surely must be better. He, his family, and a fellow explorer named Oswell found Chief Sebituane on the Chobe River, which they had discovered by taking a new route. Now came one of life's crucial decisions--the family. Where health was safe, hostile tribes lived. Where friendly people lived, health conditions were bad. He decided to send his wife and children back to England until he could find a suitable location for them. So back to Cape Town they all went, and for the first time in eleven years Livingstone saw civilization. He was 39 and it was a sorrowful parting. He fully intended to join them in two years. The family left for England on April 23, 1852.

Frustrated in not being able to find a healthful site
for a mission station, he gave attention to a second objective--to find a way going to the sea. Going to Linyant on the River Tshobe, which was the capital of the Makololo territory, he set out upon the trail of many waters, declaring, "I will open a path into the interior or perish." It was in November, 1853, that he started his famous journey through unknown country to the west coast of Africa with 27 Makololo men loaned to him by a friend, Chief Sekeletu. It was a horrible journey, with sickness, hunger, swamps, hostile tribes--six months of hardships--but on May 31, 1854, some 1,500 miles of jungle had been conquered as they arrived at Luanda. Broken in health, Livingstone was invited by ship captains to take passage back to England. However, he had
brought men to a place where they could not return by themselves. He was not going to leave them! He would guide them back to their homes. Africa had never known such loyalty.

He then took his party on an even longer and more
perilous journey back to Sesheke. Contending with wet
weather, they could find no dry place to sleep en route. He was nearly blinded as a result of being hit in the eye by a branch in the thick forest, and nearly deaf because of rheumatic fever. Then there were the perils of crocodiles, hippopotami, javelins of hostile savages. His return was considered a miracle. Two months of rest followed. The boat he considered going back to England in sank--and with it all his maps, journals and letters.
He now determined to find a route to the east coast
of the continent. Sekeletu gladly furnished him with the
means of following down the Zambezi River, giving him some 120 tribesmen. He started east in November of 1855. Only 50 miles en route, he discovered a magnificent waterfall that he named Victoria Falls. His food consisted of bird seed, manioc roots and meal. His bed was a pile of grass.

He arrived at Quilimane on the coast in May, 1856,
and was given hospitality by the Portuguese before finding a ship to take him back to England. He left his Makololo tribesmen in good hands at Tete. Before he left, he received a letter from the London Missionary Society, stating they did not like his efforts of diverting from settled missions to exploration. It was a shock to him, since he felt himself just as sincere a missionary as ever. But he accepted a severance of relations after 16 years of service. However, the London Royal Geographical Society was not quite so naive, as they awarded him their gold medal, their highest honor, when he returned home. Why? Because Livingstone had done something
no one else had ever done--he had crossed the entire African Continent from west to east.

Arriving home for the first time in 16 years, he found himself famous. His father's death while Livingstone was en route home cast a pall on the celebrations. He was forced into a limelight which he disliked. He was asked to give lectures, which was a burden, for he had never been a good public speaker. Neither did he care to write, but he did put together his Missionary Travels at the urging of many. The universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Glasgow all gave him honorary degrees.

Now came the second segment of his life of exploration, from 1858 to 1865, which took him into the Zambezi
River area under the auspices of the British government. He was appointed the Consul for the East Coast of Africa, and he was given a command that included his having anything he wanted or needed. He was now on governmental salary, had better equipment and ample funds. His wife and youngest son returned with him, his own health was much improved, and it looked like a
bright future, as he accepted the challenge of exploring the eastern and central portions of the continent. But many disappointments were ahead.

In March 1858 at age 46 he set out for Africa. Soon
after arriving at Cape Town the trials began. His wife's
health was poor, preventing her from going further with him. She took the child and went to her parents, the Moffats, at Kuruman. Then a second serious problem arose. Livingstone could command and organize Africans, but managing white colleagues and a large expedition was a total disaster. His greatest mistake was in taking his younger brother, whose temperament was totally unsuited to expedition work. Six years of disharmony and frustration were to follow, with a man named John Kirk being the only capable associate of this group.
Third problem: He found out that there were myriad
obstacles to the navigation of the Zambezi. Fourth reversal: His modern equipped boat, the Ma Roberts, was more of a hindrance than a help. She was so slow that a native canoe could easily outdistance her. She burned so much fuel that half of the time was given just to cut wood for her. On September 8, 1858, he did reach Tete and his beloved Makololo tribesmen. Much exploration followed, including the finding of Lake Nyasa on September 18, 1859, plus the discovery of the Shire
River and the Kongone entrance to the Zambezi, which was Lake Shirwa. On November 4, 1859, he received a letter informing him that he had a little daughter born at Kuruman on November 16, 1858--a year before. Much of 1860 was spent with his old friends, the Makololo. At the beginning of 1861 a new boat, the Pioneer, came to replace its antiquated predecessor. On the boat were missionaries under the direction of Bishop Charles Mackenzie, to minister to those who lived on Lake Nyasa. He explored the Rovuma River and helped establish the
mission station on the Shire River in Nyasaland. This had
been one of his dreams--an interior mission station--but the dream was soon shattered. Bishop Mackenzie died on January 31, 1862. Several of his helpers also died.

That month, Livingstone's wife rejoined him after a long
separation of four years. In the intervening time she had
taken the youngest son and baby girl back to Scotland, and then returned to rejoin her husband. But her failing health prevented the reunion to last for long. She died on April 27, 1862--just three months after she was reunited with her husband. She was buried under a great baobab tree at Shupange on the lower Zambezi. Livingstone was 49 years old and considered this a terrible loss. Out of 18 years of marriage, the two were together less than half the time.

He put together a boat called the Lady Nyasa, and sought to launch her in June, 1862, on the lake for further exploration purposes. But weather conditions prevented the launch. Slave trading continued to plague him. Human skeletons showed up everywhere. Finally, the Portuguese king promised to cooperate with Livingstone, but the officers in Africa ignored such royal suggestions. Livingstone's work actually helped rather than hindered them, for wherever he explored in Portugese East Africa, the officers would come in and tell the natives they were Livingstone's children. Thus, through lying and trickery, they would obtain even more slaves--in Livingstone's own name. Then came a dispatch from the British government recalling the expedition, saying it was more costly than the government had anticipated. But the truth was that the Portuguese government had written to the British Foreign Office that Livingstone's work was offensive to them, and the Portuguese asked for his removal.
This latest blow in 1863 failed to stagger him. He then
decided to sell the boat, but not to the Portuguese because it would be used in slave trade. Rather, he decided to go to Bombay, India, and sell it there. With a small crew, only 14 tons of coal, scant provisions including little water, and having never navigated a boat on the ocean, he left Africa April 30, 1864, and arrived in Bombay on June 16. He was received warmly but could not sell the boat, so he sailed to London, arriving July 10.

This was his second and last trip home. He spent his time with his children, associating with William Gladstone and other notables, giving speeches against the slave trade and writing another book, The Zambezi and Its Tributaries. While home, his mother died. Another tragedy in his life--Livingstone's son Robert, who at this time was
fighting in the American Civil War to free the slaves, was
killed and buried at Gettysburg.

Now the third phase of his explorations began to shape up. The Royal Geographical Society planned and sponsored his last expedition, which was from 1866 to 1873. His influential friend, Sir Roderick Murchison, had encouraged him to go back to find out more about the slave trading and also to discover the sources of the Zambezi, Congo, and Nile Rivers. He returned to Africa by way of Paris, France, where he put his daughter Agnes in school, and then Bombay, where he finally sold the boat at a loss of $18,500. The money he got was invested in an Indian bank, which shortly went broke--and all his funds were lost. He sailed from Bombay on January 3, 1866, and arrived in Zanzibar on January 26. This time he was once more going to be the only white man, having
some 60 carriers consisting of Indians, plus Chuma and Susi from Africa and animal transport. They landed at the mouth of the Rovuma River in April, 1866, intending to pass around Lake Nyasa far from the influence of the Portuguese. However, in five months, he lost by desertion or treachery all but eleven of his men and all the animals. For four years he was befriended and cared for by people he despised--slave traders. During this time he discovered the southern end of Lake Tanganyika (1867) and Lakes Moero and Bangweolo (1868).

In 1869 he reached Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, the headquarters of the trade in ivory and slaves. By this time Livingstone was desperately ill, only to find his supplies and mail sent from the coast plundered and gone. He spent the next two years striving to explore the upper Congo. He struggled back to Ujiji a broken and disappointed man beginning on July 20, 1871. On this trip a spear was thrown at him, missing his head but grazing the back of his neck. Also, a huge tree crashed across their path, missing Livingstone by a yard. Arriving on October 22 with three attendants, he thought surely
mail and medicine would be waiting for him--but it was not. The medicine had been sold and the letters destroyed or sold by Arab traders.

On October 26, 1871, four days after his arrival,
when his spirits were at their lowest ebb, with awful sores on his feet, dysentery, loss of blood, fever, and being half-starved--he heard Susi, one of his faithful followers, come running at top speed, gasping, "An Englishman--" J.G. Bennet of the New York Herald had called for a famous English reporter, Henry Stanley, to search for and find Livingstone at all cost, or verify his death, which by this time had been rumored. Shortly, when Stanley saw Livingstone approaching, he pushed through the crowd of natives to see him with the now-famous and legendary, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"

A supply of food and mail was like a tonic to the tired explorer. Stanley lived with the missionary during the winter and did everything to nurse him and encourage him to return to England. Failing to convince him to return to England, in March, 1872, the two men--now good friends--parted. Livingstone accompanied Stanley to Unyamuembe. He was to wait until men and supplies, which Stanley going to Zanzibar promised to send him, would arrive. Waiting was difficult, but finally the promised men and supplies did arrive.

Stanley summed up his relationship with Dr. David
Livingstone with these words: "I was converted by him, although he had not tried to do it."

In August the new party started toward Lakes
Tanganyika and Bangweolo. Jacob Wainright became a valuable and trusted aid, along with old-time stalwarts, Susi and Chumah. Trials were reduced to such things as ants and floods. When Livingstone grew too weak to travel, Susi carried him on his shoulders. He found himself entangled in the swampy region of Lake Bangweolo in the middle of the rainy season. Because of an accident to his sextant, for a while he was lost. His dysentery attacks were almost continuous, but he kept going across the great swamps, reaching the southern side of Lake Tanganyika, mapping to within a day of his death. Soon he could not walk at all. He was carried on a litter and reached Chitambo, a village in Itala where a hut was built for him. His last written words by letter were:
All I can say in my solitude is, may Heaven's rich blessing
come down on every one--American, English, Turk--who will help heal this open sore of the world.
At 4 a.m. on May 1, 1873, his friends heard an unusual noise, lit a candle and found him dead on his knees in
the hut. They removed his heart and buried it reverently at the foot of a mulva tree, with Wainright reading the service. A wood monument was erected. They embalmed his body by filling it with salt, leaving it in the sun to dry for 14 days, then wrapping it in cloth, before enclosing the body in the bark of a Myonga tree, over which they sewed heavy sail cloth. This package was tied to a long pole so that two men could carry it. Along with his papers they started toward Zanzibar on a 1,000-mile trip that was to take nine months. They arrived in February of 1874 and gave the body to the officers of the British Consul. When the body arrived in England on April 15, there was some doubt about the identity of the remains. However, upon examination of the mangled left arm, the doubt disappeared. On April 18, 1874, London came to stop as he was buried in Westminster Abbey with the kings and the great. At his funeral were his children, Susi, Henry Stanley--and the aged Robert Moffat, who started it all.
Mary Moffat Livingstone (1820-1862) was born at Griquatown, Africa, to her missionary parents, Robert and Mary Moffat. She married David Livingstone in 1845. The years that followed were difficult for her as they moved about often and she was ill much of the time. They had six children. She was afflicted more than once with partial paralysis, and one time she and the children returned to England for four years in order for her to recover. Her death in 1862 was a great loss to her husband who continued his missionary work for eleven more years.

He is perhaps best remembered because of his meeting with Henry Morton Stanley, which gave rise to the popular quotation, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
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cheyenne 09

cheyenne 09

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Famous Explorer's

James Bruce of Kinnaird

James Bruce of Kinnaird came from an old Scottish family in Stirlingshire. He was 6 feet 4 inches in height, handsome and well-built, with dark red hair and considerable charm of manner. Charming as he was, Bruce had a quick temper. In his own words he was "of a sanguine, passionate disposition, very sensible of injury."

Bruce married when he was 24. Nine months later his young wife tragically died of tuberculosis. In order to take his mind off his loss Bruce decided to travel abroad. On a visit to Spain he became very interested in the Moors - the Arabic-speaking people who had conquered Spain during the 700's , ruled over most of it until the late 1200's and were finally expelled in 1492 - and began his studies of Arabic.

Shortly after, Bruce was appointed British consul general to the Moorish city of Algiers. To prepare himself for this new job he perfected his Arabic, and because part of his official mission was to learn all he could about Africa, he began to study the little-known Ethiopian tongues of Amharic and Ge'ez. After two years in Algiers he spent the next seven years traveling in North Africa and the Near East, looking, learning, and equipping himself for an enterprise which, in the words of his first biographer, "had taken deeper possession of Mr. Bruce's mind than any other project." His goal was to reach Ethiopia and find the springs which were said to he the source of the Nile.

Instead of traveling, like most well-to-do Europeans of the day, in luxury and aloofness, Bruce lived and dressed as an Arab. In North Africa he learned to ride in the Arab style and proved to be a brilliant horseman. During an attack of malaria while he was staying at Aleppo in Syria he came under the care of a doctor, Patrick Russel, who had made a study of tropical diseases. Bruce picked up so much medical knowledge From Russel that he could pass himself off as a physician. When he started off for Ethiopia the Sherif of Mecca gave him the closest thing in those days to a passport, saying Bruce was a Christian physician accustomed to wander over the world in search of herbs and trees beneficial to the health of man."

In 1768, Bruce, now 38, was in Cairo ready to embark on his quest. With Luigi Balugani, a young Italian he had hired as secretary and artist to make sketches and maps, Bruce set off up the Nile by boat. The party- got as far as Aswan only to find that tribal wars to the south made it too dangerous to go on. Bruce, however, was determined. Turning eastward, he left the Nile and crossed the desert and the Red Sea to the port of Juddah on the coast of Arabia. From there he sailed south to Massaua, a port on Ethiopia's coast. Massaua was then under the control of the Turks who detained Bruce for two months.

On November 10, 1768, Bruce set out from Massaua for Gondar, the Ethiopian capital. He was accompanied by Balugani, some guards he had hired and armed, three servants, and a guide. The most important item in his baggage was a quadrant - an instrument for measuring the altitude of the sun or stars and used in determining position - so that when he found the source of the Nile he could work out its latitude. The quadrant was so heavv that two teams of four men were needed to carry it over the mountains that rise so quickly from the coast to the high plateau of Ethiopia. Traveling over the plateau the party passed through immense flocks of antelopes that scarcely moved aside to let them by. The Ethiopians were herdsmen and Bruce wrote that cattle were "here in great plenty, cows and bulls, of exquisite beauty, for the most part completely white."

The usual diet of the Ethiopians consisted of honey and bread made from dhurra) a kind of millet. When they ate meat, it was taken raw from living animals. Bruce first experienced this when his party overtook three soldiers herding a cow along with them. When they reached a river bank the soldiers tied the cow and proceeded to cut two large portions of flesh from her flanks. After this they folded the skin back over the wound and fastened it with small skewers, untied the cow and drove her on.

After three months the expedition reached Gondar, where small pox had broken out. Because of his reputation as a physician, Bruce was summoned to the palace of the Iteghe, the queen mother, and commanded to treat her grandchildren. Following Russel's procedures he had all the doors and windows opened, the rooms fumigated with incense and myrrh, and the walls washed with vinegar. The children recovered, and the Iteghe's gratitude and protection opened the way to Bruce's success. A close friendship grew up between him and the ladies of the court. Bruce spoke their language fluently, charmed them with his manners, and took care to dress to please them. "My hair was cut round, curled, and perfumed in the Ambaric fashion, and 1 was thenceforward, in all outward appearance, a perfect Abyssinian."

But Bruce's way to the source of the Nile was blocked by political strife. Ethiopia was in a state of civil war caused by a rising against the 15-year-old king of the country, Takla Haymanot. The real ruler of Ethiopia, however, was not Takla but his adviser, Ras Michael, who was away campaigning against the rebels when Bruce arrived. Upon his return Ras Michael paraded through the capital at the head of 30,000 men. Every soldier who had killed an enemy decorated his lance or musket with a strip of red rag. One soldier "had been so fortunate in combat that his whole lance and javelin, horse and person, were covered over with shreds of scarlet cloth." Held high in the procession was the "stuffed skin" of a rebel chief who had been flayed alive. One of Ras Michael's first acts on his return was to have the eyes of 44 captive chiefs torn out and "the unfortunate sufferers turned out into the fields, to be devoured at night by the hyenas." Bruce rescued three of the chiefs and nursed them back to health.

Ras Michael, apart from his brutality, was an intelligent man. He was about 70 years old with "an air perfectly- free from constraint," and he saw in Bruce a possible ally in the civil war and court intrigue. He appointed theScot master of the king's horse, groom of the bedchamber, and titular governor of the province of Geesh where the fabled spring that Bruce hoped to find was located.

It was while Bruce was in the employ of the Ethiopian court that he got his first view of the Blue Nile. The river's source is the Little Abbai River, a stream that rises about 70 miles south of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, and some 2,750 miles from the Nile Delta. The stream enters Lake Tana, emerges from the lake's southeast corner, and then - as the Blue Nile - flows in a great curve, first to the southeast and then northwest to enter the Ludan. Bruce first saw the Blue Nile where it thunders over the Tisisat Falls 20 miles below Lake Tana, but he was campaigning with the king's army. As they were returning to court he had to turn back with them.

Bruce was determined to attempt to reach the source of the river. Eventually, in October, 1770, he received royal permission to under take his search, and he left Gondar with a small party of men and his precious astronomical instruments. Just as they approached the stream, his party climbed a steep, rugged mountain populated by great numbers of baboons. Although these long-toothed powerful animals can be dangerous, Bruce was not deterred. From the mountain's 9,500 foot summit he looked down on "the Nile itself now only a brook that had scarcely water to turn a mill."

Below the mountain, at the tiny town of Geesh, lay a shallow ford and beyond that a deserted Ethiopian church where the small party paused in the shade of a grove of cedars. Before them lay the swamp from which the river drained. The guide now turned difficult and bargained for Bruce's scarlet silk sash in return for revealing the spring which was the ultimate source of the Blue Nile. Throwing off his shoes, Bruce raced toward the little island in the marsh the guide had pointed to, and there he found his prize. The spring, which was sacred to the local people, appeared to Bruce as in the form of an altar. . . . I stood in rapture over the principal fountain which rises in the middle." Bruce indulged himself in a moment of triumph "standing in that spot which had baffled the genius, industry, and enquiry of both ancients and moderns for the course of near three thousand years. Kings had attempted this discovery at the head of armies But Bruce had at last triumphed and reached his goal.

For all his exuberance, Bruce was mistaken on two counts. This spring was not the true source of the Nile, nor was he the first European to reach it, of the two branches that unite to form Africa's greatest river, the White Nile is the longer, and the place where it issues from Lake Victoria is now generally accepted as "the source of the Nile." The Blue Nile is, in this sense, a tributary, although a mighty one, supplying six-sevenths of the water that flows through Upper Egypt as well as the fertile silt upon which Egypt's civilization' was founded.

The first European to set eyes on the spring at Geesh had been a Spanish Jesuit, Pedro Paez, in 1618. About 10 years later another Jesuit, Jeronimo Lobo, had passed through the district and visited the Tisisat Falls. But Bruce was the first to verify the source and to fix the spring's position, and the first to follow the river from Sennar, where the Sennar Dam now blocks its path, down to its confluence with the White Nile where Khartoum now stands.

Bruce's mood of euphoria quickly gave way to one of gloom' Having achieved his object, he wanted to go home, but this was not allowed by the Ethiopian court. As master of the king's horse he found himself caught up in campaigns against the rebels, and for his part in one of them was rewarded with a massive gold chain. But the intrigues, bloodshed, torture, and executions sickened him' "Blood continued to be spilt as water, day after day," he wrote, ''Priests and laymen, young and old, noble and vile, daily found their end by the knife or the cord. Bodies were left to rot where they lay - and by night the capital was filled with scavenging hyenas." Bruce fell sick with malaria. His Italian draughtsman, Balugani, died of dysentery. "Nothing occupied my thoughts but how to escape from this bloody country by way of Sennar."

Eventually, because of Bruce's ill-health, the king reluctantly allowed him to depart. More than a year after his return from the spring at Geesh Bruce rode out of Gondar accompanied only by three Greeks, one of them almost blind, an elderly Turk, and a few grooms. He headed for Sennar in the Sudan both to follow the Nile and to avoid the Turks at Massaua. He was to take just over a year on the journey, which began on December 26, 1771, and ended at Cairo, a total of 2,000 miles, on January 10, 1773.

At this period the authority of the Ottoman Turks who controlled Egypt extended no farther up the Nile than Aswan, at the first cataract. South of this lay an immense and sparsely-populated region where independent kingdoms waxed and waned according to the strength and fortunes of their rulers. These desert kings were of Arab blood mixed with the native Negro or Hamitic. They were Moslems who spoke and wrote Arabic, and kept to some Arab customs and traditions. Their subjects were either nomadic herders - long-horned cattle or peasants barely able to survive because of the taxes imposed upon them by their landlords.

Despite the remoteness of these kingdoms, cut off by cruel deserts and even more cruel bandits from the rest of the world, they had not lost all touch with civilization. To such markets as Shandi and Barbar on the Nile came silks from the Indies, swords from Syria, rugs from Iran, glass from Venice, brass and beads from India, and spices from many other parts of the world. From them went spirited desert-bred horses, ivory, leopard skins, ostrich feathers, gold-dust, and a great number of slaves. There was a regular slave trade with Egypt, and with Arabia via the port of Suakin on the Red Sea.

After a four-month journey part of it taken up with a two-month bout of malaria Bruce reached Sennar. The courts of the sheiks kept up a barbaric sort of splendor. One traveler recorded in 1409 that the ladies of Sennar wore robes of silk or fine calico with sleeves falling to the ground, "their hair is twisted and set with rings of silver, copper, brass, and ivory, or glass of different colours. These rings are fastened to their locks in form of crowns; their arms, legs, ears, and even nostrils are covered with these rings."

Bruce was less flattering to the King of Sennar's favorite wife. She was, he wrote, "about six feet high, and corpulent beyond all proportion. A ring of gold passed through under her lip, and weighed it down, till, like a flap, it covered her chin, and left her teeth bare." Her ears reached to her shoulders, tugged down by more rings, and "she had on her ankles two manacles of gold, larger than any I had ever seen upon the feet of felons." It was not surprising that all the royal ladies needed treatment for some ailment.

In Sennar the king's authority was enforced by a small but highly trained corps of cavalry, the Black Horse, who fought, like medieval knights, in chain mail. Bruce was deeply impressed by the Black Horse of Sennar, known and dreaded throughout a kingdom stretching from the Ethiopian foothills to Kordofan, west of the White Nile. Bruce admired the 400 famous horses, "all above sixteen hands high, of the breed of the old Saracen horses, all fimely made." The soldiers slept beside their horses, and each man hung up on its stall his suit of chain mail, his copper helmet, a broad-sword in a red leather scabbard, and a pair of thick leather gloves.

Despite the splendor of the horses, the beauty of the country, and he hospitality of the people, Bruce soon grew tired of Sennar which, in the rainy season, became unbearably hot and unhealthy. Once again the king refused to let him go. Bruce ran out of goods and money, and was forced to sell all but six links of his massive gold chain to buy food to keep himself and his men alive. But after four months, he managed to escape with the three Greeks, the old Turk, an unreliable guide, and five camels. Ahead lay 800 miles of unknown country, mostly desert, separating Sennar from the borders of Egypt at Aswan.

After passing the junction of the two Niles and then Shandi and Barbar, Bruce and his party reached the point where the Nile turns west to make an 800- mile loop before it turns north again. Rather than follow the great curve, they struck out on the direct but dangerous route north across the desert toward Aswan, a distance of about 350 miles. On November 11, 1772, they filled their water- skins and Bruce had his last bathe in the Nile, "and thus took leave of my old acquaintance, very doubtful if we should ever meet again."

His doubts were nearly justified. The men's shoes wore out and they trudged on through burning sand and over jagged rock, barefooted, and in pain. There was no food for the camels. Then, to add fear to physical discomfort, the struggling group came on the remains of a large caravan that had left Sennar a few days before them and had been wiped out by robbers. "In this whole desert," wrote Bruce, "there is neither worm, nor fly, nor anything that has the breath of life."

Whirlwinds and the dreaded simoom, the burning dust-laden wind of the desert, almost suffocated them. Bruce's feet were so badly blistered and swollen that he could scarcely walk. As a last desperate resort Bruce and his companions killed the camels and drained' their stomachs to replenish their water supplies. They set off on foot, leaving Bruce's instruments and the records of his four years of travel.

When all hope seemed lost, Bruce saw two hawks in the sky- signs that water was not tar away. The party staggered on, and in the evening heard the distant sound of a cataract. "Christians, Moors, and Turks all burst into floods of tears, kissing and embracing one another, and thanking God for his mercy in this deliverance." Next morning, November 29, 1772, they limped into Aswan.

Despite his desperate condition, Bruce's first thought was for his papers. He begged camels from the governor, retraced his steps, and found his baggage untouched. From Aswan he went by boat to Cairo, sick and with feet so swollen that he could not stand.

Now Bruce was ready to reap his reward. He set out for home. Before going to England, however, he went to France to receive treatment for a leg infected by the parasitic Guinea worm he had picked up in Sennar. Several months elapsed before he arrived back in London, expecting recognition and praise for his great achieve ment. At first, people listened to his story. George III received him and accepted a present of some of Balugani's drawings. Then the mood changed.

In 1774, London society was dominated by polished, skeptical wits. This bluff, noisy Scot, full of what seemed to be tall stories, was an irresistible target. London society just did not believe Bruce's tales of meat cut from living cows and served raw and bleeding, and of fat princesses with golden rings in their noses. Moreover Bruce fell foul of Samuel Johnson, one of the great figures of London who greatly influenced popular opinion. Johnson's first published work had been a translation of Jeronimo Lobo's account of his Ethiopian travels, and he had written a novel, Passe/as, Prince of Abyssinia, set in an imaginary Ethiopia very different from the reality described by Bruce. Johnson, who disliked Scots anyway, made it known that he did not believe that Bruce had ever been to Ethiopia at all. This was a sentence of death to the explorer's reputation. None of the honors Bruce had hoped for came his way.

Hurt, angry, and hurniliated, Bruce retreated to his estate in Scotland, remarried, raised a farnily, and enjoyed the social and sporting life of a Scottish laird. Only after his wife died in 1785 did he begin to work on the notes and journals he had brought home at so high a cost and then locked away in disgust at his treatment. And it was not until 1790 that his Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile appeared. The public did not question the author's truthfulness, but delighted in his racy style, and admired his courage and tenacity. He did not, however, live long to enjoy his popular success. On April 27, 1794, Bruce, the gentleman-adventurer, died at the age of 64 as a result of an accident the day

Patrick Geddes


Patrick Geddes was born on October 2, 1854 at Ballater in West Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Geddes moved with his parents to Perth in 1857, where they inhabited Mount Tabor Cottage.
At the age of seventeen, Geddes enrolled at the University of Edinburgh. but left after one week to attend the London School of Mines and study under the tutelage of the great natural scientist, T.H. Huxley. A couple of years later, Geddes traveled to Paris to study. In 1879 Geddes first encountered the social theories of Frederic Le Play. The works of Le Play greatly influenced Geddes as he became aware of the effect of environmental and geographical factors on the existing social structures.
The French influenced Geddes in many other ways. He learned about the geographical concept of regionalism, a concept which would lie at the core of his urban studies. Geddes was impressed by Comte's evolutionary development of science which placed the social sciences above mathematics and logic, physics and chemistry, and biology.
Geddes' busy mind developed three-dimensional "thinking machines," which synthesized knowledge from geography, economics, and anthropology. These thinking machines attempted to show the inter-relatedness of different arenas of the social sciences. Geddes was also interested in civics, which studied the relation of individuals and the environment. He believed in the earth as a cooperative planet where people should be taught how to properly treat their environment. Specifically, Geddes' web of life aimed to educate children, improve the physical quality of people by using new biological knowledge to produce better medicine, and understand the human influence on ecology. These ideas led to his notion of Eutopia, a Utopia which was realizable here and now.
After an episode of severe illness in November, 1879, when Geddes became temporarily blind, Geddes returned to Scotland and his fundamental love of botany. He became a demonstrator of botany and a lecturer on zoology. In May, 1885, Geddes fell in love with Anna Morton and married her eleven months later. His new bride seemed to rejuvenate and give him a renewed sense of direction.

The University College at Dundee offered Geddes a chair as Professor of Botany in 1888. A year later, Geddes co-wrote The Evolution of Sex with his friend, Arthur Thompson. His book is still of great interest because of the section which discusses the origin of being male or female.
After writing The Evolution of Sex, Geddes next turned to the establishment of a museum which would be located in his famous Outlook Tower. Being a strong believer in the need to synthesize knowledge, Geddes put his energy into the development of the Outlook Tower. He wanted to provide "a new understanding of the world...with the widest possible perspective". Geddes inscribed the motto vivendo discimus above the entrance to the Outlook Tower to signify his belief in a living museum where knowledge would be applied, not just stored. His regional museum was to provide an environment in which to advance solutions to societal problems.

Geddes held summer meeting at the Edinburgh school, utilizing the Outlook Tower to preach his three S's; sympathy for people and the environment, synthesis of all factors relating to a case, and synergy—the combined cooperative action of everyone involved. As Meller wrote, "Geddes felt that he had formed a new philosophy of education which incorporated the many methods he had learned from Le Play, Comte, Huxley, and others during his endeavors into biology civics, and geography.
The evolutionary approach to social science which Geddes had championed was evident in the arrangement of the Outlook Tower.

A tour of the museum began at the top where a camera obscura allowed for a survey of the region surrounding Edinburgh. From the top of the tower, a visitor would descend from one floor to the next, observing the wealth of synthesized knowledge concerning Edinburgh (5th floor), Scotland (4th floor), Great Britain (3rd floor), Europe (2nd floor), and the world (1st floor). The descent progressed from an understanding of one's immediate region to its impact on a global scale, emphasizing the connection between humans and the environment. In his urban studies, Geddes sought to understand this connection and its effects on culture, the evolution of cities, and the perceived cyclical nature of urban growth.

As the museum grew and Geddes continually became involved in other projects in multiple fields of study, the Town and Gown Association was formed to run the activities of the Outlook Tower. As Geddes became more detached from its daily activities, he devoted the next stage of his life to the urban planning movement.
At the time Ebenezer Howard was working with his Garden Cities movement, Geddes looked at problems of existing cities. Geddes wanted to provide a link between social reform and the urban environment not only in small towns, but also in large cities. When the 1909 Town and Planning Act was passed, it required local officials to survey the local areas before undertaking any planning. Thus Geddes published a general survey method despite his opinion that each city and its culture are unique. His work continued with the Cities and Town Planning Exhibition. In 1911, the exhibition took Geddes to Dublin, Ireland. Dublin would become Geddes focus as he attempted to solve the city's tremendous health and housing problems.

Following his trip to Ireland, Geddes wrote Cities in Evolution, an essay on the growth of cities. There Geddes emphasized preservation of historical traditions, involvement of the people in their own betterment and the rediscovery of past traditions of city building.
In 1914, after enjoying some success with the Cities and Town Planning Exhibition, he decided to take his studies to India. He was attracted to India because of its challenge for him. As Meller mentioned, Geddes' urban planning had been directed toward a European culture. Extending to India his ideas about regional surveying, cooperation between man and the environment, and synthesis of knowledge would give Geddes a chance to prove himself. India's different culture and lack of industrial development provided another platform for Geddes to further his approach to urban planning.

Among the many problems facing India were the extreme poverty and obscenely overcrowded slums plaguing India's rapidily growing cities. In addressing these problems, Geddes wanted to revive indigenous customs and use them for modern purpose. Although Geddes enjoyed his challenges in India concerning urban planning, he suffered through two tremendous losses from which he never fully recovered. First, in April 1917, Geddes' son Alasdair was killed on the battlefront during World War I. Geddes had always considered Alasdair his closest companion because he best understood his father's passions and ideas. At the same time, Geddes wife Anna was suffering from dysentery. Patrick did not even tell Anna about Alasdair's death so as not to make her undergo any more anguish. In early June 1917, Anna passed away. These two tragic events occurring in such a short span left Geddes devastated and lonely. As Kitchen wrote, "It was a loneliness that would last the rest of his life".

In 1918, Geddes became involved in the Zionist movement, turning his interest to Jerusalem and Palestine. After five years of traveling back and forth between India and Dundee College in Scotland, the prospect of working in Jerusalem seemed to him a culmination of all his dreams. While working with Dr. M.D. Eder of the Zionist Commission, he suggested a comprehensive survey of Jerusalem which would evaluate the Past, Present and Possible. Geddes received the Commission's permission to plan Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Geddes planned for the Hebrew University to follow his ideas of synthesizing knowledge and promoting an intimate relationship between university, city, and region. Geddes left his mark on the university with the building of the Dome which he envisioned as a sign of unity. Geddes wanted his architectural style and good city planning to encourage the integration of Palestinians, Arabs, and Jews.
Geddes' Impact.

Geddes influenced the urban planning movement in many different ways. His work on regional surveying influenced Lewis Mumford and numerous others. Mumford, however, did not totally accept Geddes' ideas on social reconstruction. Yet, the method of considering social implications in city planning has carried over to the sustainable city projects of today. His understanding of the connection between the individual and the environment, as described in his last major work, Life Outlines of General Biology, constitutes the core of modern planning. In the last years of his life, Geddes settled in southern France, building a school at Montpellier. He tried to teach his views of life and the sciences. While his son Arthur helped Geddes with his school in Montpellier, the Outlook Tower in Edinburgh received less attention and eventually had to close. Still, Geddes was recognized for his lifelong efforts by being knighted in 1931. On April 17, 1932, Geddes passed away. Geddes' work on regional surveys, cultural evolution, and urban sociology has become even more noticed since his death. His Outlook Tower and view on life serves as a catalyst for today's sustainable city movement.

Mary Slessor "Mother of All the Peoples"


Mary Slessor was born on 2nd December 1848 in Gilcomston, a suburb of Aberdeen, the second of seven children, only four of whom survived childhood. Her father, Robert Slessor, originally from Buchan, was a shoemaker to trade. Her mother, from Oldmeldrum, was a deeply religious woman of sweet disposition, who had a keen interest in missionary work in the Calabar region of Nigeria.
In 1859, the family moved to Dundee in search of work. Mrs. Slessor became a member of the Wishart Church, named after the nearby Wishart Arch from which Protestant martyr George Wishart had reputedly preached to plague victims during the epidemic of 1544.

Mary's father became an alcoholic and was unable to continue his shoemaking work. He finally took a job as a mill labourer. Mrs. Slessor was determined to see her children properly educated, and the young Mary not only attended Church but, at the age of eleven, began work as a "half timer" in the Baxter Brothers' Mill. Mary spent half of her arduous day at a school provided by the mill owners, and the other half in productive employment for the company. Thus began a harsh introduction to the work ethic which was to dominate her life.
By the age of fourteen, Mary had become a skilled jute worker. The life of a weaver, no longer with the benefit of company schooling, was daunting by modern standards. Up before 5 a.m. to do the housework, Mary worked from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. with just an hour for breakfast and lunch. This photograph of a Dundee millgirl is not contemporary, but depicts a working life in which little had changed during the intervening years.

Fortunately, Mary had benefited significantly from her rudimentary education. More importantly, she developed an intense interest in religion and, when a mission was instituted in Quarry Pend (close by the Wishart Church), Mary volunteered to become a teacher. Later, the mission moved to Wishart Pend, where the Church still stands, and so began a formative period in Mary's life during which she learned to cope with both physical and mental hardship.

The story is told of how she stood her ground against a local gang, who swung a metal weight on a string closer and closer to her face. This stalwart young woman defied the gang by obtaining their agreement that, should she not flinch, then all her tormentors would join the Sunday School class. Mary triumphed, and gained experience which she would later exploit in her contacts with even more threatening tribes in a distant land.
Strangely, although entranced by the accounts of work in Nigeria outlined in the "Missionary Record", this courageous woman doubted her own ability to perform similar deeds, describing herself as "wee and thin and not very strong". Eventually, however, she applied to the Foreign Mission Board of the United Presbyterian Church, effectively offering her life to the people of the Calabar region. After a brief period of training in Edinburgh, Mary set sail in the S.S. Ethiopia on 5th August 1876, and arrived at her destination in West Africa just over a month later. She was 28 years of age, red haired with bright blue eyes shining in enthusiasm for the daunting task ahead.

Some of the old hands in Calabar might have been excused for questioning whether she would last her first full year.
Portuguese mariners first visited the present day Nigeria in the 15th century to pursue trade with the kingdom of Benin, which straddled the land between Lagos and the Niger delta. By the year 1811, Wilberforce's great anti-slavery reforms started to take effect, and so the slave trade, which had disrupted society and government, finally began to crumble. In 1861, Britain seized Lagos in order to preserve her trading interests, the first of a series of colonial initiatives which led to the establishment of the Nigerian Protectorate in 1914. When Mary Slessor arrived, she was to witness one of the most turbulent periods in the history of this process.

The culture and customs of her new flock are well described in Charles Partridge's book, "Cross River Natives". Witchcraft and superstition were prevalent in a country whose traditional society had been torn apart by the slave trade. Human sacrifice routinely followed the death of a village dignitary, and the ritual murder of twins was viewed by the new missionary with particular abhorrence. Her dedicated efforts to forestall this irrational superstition were to prove a resounding success, as photographs of Mary with her beloved children testify.

In this primitive society, women were treated as lower than cattle, and Mary was so successful in raising their standing in society that she may be considered as one of the pioneers of women's rights in Africa. She also became fluent in the Efik language, so that she might use humour and sarcasm to reinforce her arguments. Her voice was recorded by Charles Partridge on his phonograph, and you can hear an extract of Mary Slessor speaking Efik. Unlike most missionaries, she lived in native style and became thoroughly conversant with the language, the culture and customs, and the day-to-day lives of those she served so well.

Unfortunately it was dangers other than those from aggressive natives and wild animals that faced missionaries from a relatively healthy Western European environment. It was not until 1902 that Sir Ronald Ross was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the Anopheles mosquito and its role as a host for the deadly malarial parasite. This knowledge was too late for Mary Slessor and her colleagues. Like lambs to the slaughter, they came to a country with its river mists and overpowering heat, where diseases and infections were legion, and they succumbed in their hundreds to the very fevers from which the modern traveller is mercifully spared.

Their average life expectancy was just a few years, and those who survived and returned home often endured recurring fevers and ill-health for the rest of their lives. In letters reproduced here, Mary bravely makes light of her experiences, but the horrors of forty years of debilitating suffering may be clearly discerned through the surface humour and stoicism. In the early years of the 20th century, some remedies and precautions were becoming available, and Mary provided vaccination against the dreaded smallpox, and set up mission hospitals for treating illnesses and injuries suffered by the native peoples.
Mary's dedicated work with the people and her almost total integration with them culminated in an official request by the Governor that she combine her missionary activities with an administrative position as a Member of the Itu Court. Her letters to Charles Partridge chronicle this period of colonial expansion. Roads were being driven into the interior, and military expeditions were starting to make use of motor vehicles. Untold dangers faced all those involved in these hazardous enterprises, and Mary Slessor, though ever keen to discount her own perilous situation, retained a pragmatic attitude to the dangers facing lesser mortals. In one letter she urges that the expedition should include a "Maxim" machine gun ".

She was constantly urging the Foreign Mission Board in Edinburgh to finance extensions of her work in the interior. The trading markets which she had enthusiastically encouraged attracted people from far afield, and her attempts to reach out to them were the natural consequences of these contacts. Gradually the money was forthcoming and, as new missionaries took over responsibility for the posts vacated by Mary, she was able to move ever further into the heartland. Her courage in braving the hostility provoked by these incursions is legendary.
The recurring illnesses and general hardships which she faced as a matter of course all took their toll on this redoubtable woman. By 1915, her physical strength had greatly declined, and the woman who had once thought nothing of all-night treks through the rain forest was finally reduced to travelling in a hand-cart propelled by one of her assistants. On the 13th January 1915, after an excruciating and prolonged bout of fever, Mary Slessor died. In his biography of 1980, James Buchan described her as the "Expendable Mary Slessor". Expendable she may have been, but few have given so much of themselves to so many, and under such appalling conditions.

The grave of Mary Slessor, marked by an imposing cross of Scottish granite, is in the heart of the country she served so well. She was accorded a state funeral and, in 1953, the new head of the Commonwealth, Elizabeth II, made her own pilgrimage to the graveside. Mary Slessor is still remembered in Dundee, as in her adopted homeland, and there is a growing world-wide interest in her work.

Thomas Blake Glover


In his native Northeast of Scotland Thomas Blake Glover is virtually unknown, however in his adopted country of Japan he is revered as a national hero - one of the founding fathers of modern Japan.
Thomas Blake Glover was born at 15 Commerce Street, Fraserburgh on June 6, 1838 and lived at the same address for the next six years. His father, an Englishman, had served as an officer in the Royal Navy, later becoming the Chief Coastguard in Fraserburgh, the Coastguard house stood just around the corner from the cottage in Commerce Street. Glover's mother was a Scot through-and-through, she was from Fordyce in Banffshire.
In 1851 the family moved to Bridge of Don, Aberdeen but Glover would soon move again. After leaving school he began working for a trading company and travelled the world. He was successful as a merchant trading in ships and weapons in Japan during the 1860's, at that time a politically unstable and violent corner of the world. He settled in Nagasaki, his house was built in 1863 and remains the oldest western style building in Japan.
The battleship Mikasa in dock. Like much of the Japanese navy by the end of the 19th century she had been built in Britain.

Glover became a prominent individual and helped the samurai to topple their military leader, the Shogun, restoring the Emperor to his throne. At this time he helped in the industrialisation of Japan.
He was responsible for commissioning three warships for the Japanese navy from Aberdeen shipyards, subsequently he established his own shipbuilding company which later grew into the industrial giant Mitsubishi. He was responsible for introducing the first railway locomotive into Japan as well as establishing the country's first mechanised coal mine. He also organised the education of many young Japanese abroad, mostly in Britain.

Glover married a woman called Tsura, the daughter of a samurai, who many believe was the inspiration for Puccini's opera - Madame Butterfly, since she habitually wore the emblem of a butterfly on her clothes.
Glover was not only the first to introduce much western technology to Japan but was also the first non-Japanese to be presented with the Order of the Rising Sun - one of the country's top honours. He died in 1911, aged 73.
Glover's house in Nagasaki is now the centrepiece of "Glover Garden", Western Japan's top tourist attraction with almost 2 million visitors each year. The site of Glover's birth has not fared so well. During the Second World War the Luftwaffe scored a direct hit on 15 Commerce Street - the site to this day remains empty, although plans have been put forward to rebuilt the cottage at a cost of £375,000 and turning it into a tourist attraction.

Alexander Duff


Alexander Duff was born in Moulin, Perthshire in Scotland. His father was a crofter or small farmer and Alexander’s early years from 1806 were spent in the family home a small cottage on open ground, flanked by mountain streams and with woodland of birch, ash, larch and oak as background. It was attractive and impressive countryside.

The visit of Charles Simeon of Cambridge to that area in 1796 had had a profound effect on many in the area. Duff’s father and the parish minister were amongst them and the religious life of the district was strengthened. Alexander Duff was introduced to the teachings of the Scriptures, to the life histories of those who had suffered persecution and to the Gaelic poetry of Dugald Buchanan, known as the John Bunyan of the Highlands.
Three experiences influenced Duff deeply. The reading of one of Buchanan’s poems, the ‘Day of Judgement’ had a profound effect on young Alexander Duff and from the impact of the experience he came to assurance of peace with God through the death of Christ.
Almost drowned in a stream near his home, he shortly afterwards had a vision that confirmed his understanding of special service in which he would be engaged.
A third experience illumined God’s loving, providential care for him. As a boy of thirteen, he was returning from school in Perth one winter weekend, accompanied by a school friend. Darkness fell when they were some distance from home; snow was falling and there was no sign of habitation. Exhausted, they tried to remain awake and prayed for help. Suddenly in the darkness they saw a light. Making their way towards where it had been, they discovered a garden wall and soon found warmth and shelter in a hospitable cottage.
In 1821 he went to St Andrews University, having been dux of Perth Grammar School. He was energetic and enthusiastic. Research carried out by Stuart Piggin and John Roxborogh for their book, The St Andrews Seven shows that Duff was a most assiduous reader. From the University Library during his years at university he borrowed more books than any other student - 334 titles (413 volumes) quite apart from those he may have consulted in the Library. He was an outstanding student, one of those who were enthused by Thomas Chalmers when he took up the position of Professor of Moral Philosophy there in 1823. He and other students of that time were to have great influence in Scotland, but extraordinary impact in India.
In 1843, after years of difficult labour there was in Calcutta an educational work and associated church development that was a credit to the Church of Scotland. Far from the scene of activity in Scotland and the commotion surrounding the Disruption, Alexander Duff had established principles for working amongst the 130 million people of India and means that were effective in opening Indian thought to an intelligent understanding of Christianity. In August 1843, Duff and the four other missionaries with him in Bengal indicated their adherence to ‘the Free Protesting Presbyterian Church of Scotland’.
In May 1829 Duff had been formally appointed as its first missionary by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. In September the missionary and his wife left Leith for London and sailed from Portsmouth on the East India Company’s ship ‘Lady Holland’ a month later. In February of the following year, the 22 passengers and the crew were shipwrecked on Dassen Island near Cape Town in South Africa. All survived the disaster, but the cargo was lost. Duff had taken with him a library of 800 books, his journals, notes, memoranda and essays, of which 40 books were washed up in very poor state - only his Bible and Psalter surviving in reasonable condition. The second part of the voyage from South Africa to the Bay of Bengal ended in a second shipwreck in the estuary of the Hooghly. A May cyclone drove the ship aground and again the Duffs and other passengers reached safety, sheltering in the village temple until they were rescued. Help was sent from Calcutta and the passengers were conveyed to the city. The ship was later refloated and its cargo safely disembarked.
Duff had been charged to set up an educational institution, but not to do so in Calcutta. He resolved to ignore the advice in view of the advantages that he saw in Calcutta as a centre in Bengal from which to reach 500,000 people.

The difficulties of missionary work were exemplified by the lack of Christian converts after many years of labour. Those that existed were often of the lower classes and did not form a lively Christian witness. Duff chose to work amongst young people and his aim had a future as well as present purpose.
‘While you engage in directly separating as many precious atoms from the mass as the stubborn resistance to ordinary appliances can admit, we shall, with the blessing of God, devote our time and strength to the preparing of a mine, and the setting of a train which shall one day explode and tear up the whole from its lowest depths’.
Education, saturated with the teaching of the Scriptures, was the means to be used in bringing change. While religious instruction was of special significance, he aimed to teach every branch of useful knowledge - elementary forms at first, advancing to the highest levels of study in history, literature, logic, mental and moral philosophy, mathematics, biology, physics and other sciences. These aims were very different from those of other Christian educational institutions.
After consulting with a wise Indian adviser, Duff resolved not to teach in Bengali, Persian, Arabic or Sanskrit but to use English as the medium of teaching.

This meant that students using these other languages were all learning English on an equal basis, were taught the Scriptures in English, were introduced to English literature - much of which was permeated with the spirit of Christianity - and studied the sciences in English, freed from the focus of the ideas that permeate Hindu thought.
Duff, with the assistance of a young untrained Eurasian spent six hours a day teaching 300 Bengali youths the English alphabet. His evenings were spent preparing a series of graduated school-books called ‘Instructors’. The first books dealt with interesting everyday subjects, the second with Biblical themes, especially those which were historical.
Word study was a key to discussion of the properties and uses of objects, drawing on information known to the boys and stimulating their powers of observation. The boys were encouraged to think. Their delight in gaining understanding was infectious and the school acquired a very favourable reputation in the community. His pedagogical style was in very marked contrast to the mechanical and monotonous style of teaching prevalent in India.

Within the first year the size of the school was expanded, as also its scope, in that no student was allowed to begin to learn English until he could read with ease in Bengali. These students were enriched with vocabulary and spiritual ideas derived from English literature. Alexander Duff was able to carry forward his own studies in Bengali in friendly rivalry with his students.
Since Duff’s approach had been rejected out of hand by the European community, he tested the results of his first year’s work through a publicly-announced examination of his students in the Freemasons Hall. He invited an Anglican Archdeacon to preside. The boys responded with such effect that reports in the three daily English newspapers of Calcutta were totally favourable to the new venture.

In the second year hundreds of students had to be turned away because of lack of space. Saturdays were set aside for European visitors to view the school since they came in such numbers during the week as to interrupt classes. Visitors from all parts of India came to review what was being accomplished and returned home to establish educational centres on the same principles.
Duff also concerned himself with the education of girls, supported those who were involved in it and encouraged the younger generation to consider the importance of the education of women and girls.
After 3 years of labour the work of the school was fully recognised. In correspondence, Dr Duff wrote, ‘The school continues greatly to flourish. You may form some notion of what has been done, when I state that the highest class read and understand any English book with the greatest ease; write and speak English with tolerable fluency; have finished a course of Geography and Ancient History; have studied the greater part of the New Testament and portions of the Old; have mastered the evidence from prophecy and miracles; have, in addition, gone through the common rules of Algebra, three books of Euclid, Plane Geometry and logarithms. And I venture to say that, on all these subjects, the youths that compose the first class would stand no unequal comparison with youths of the same standing in any seminary in Scotland’.

Work of a similar sort was set up in Bombay and Madras.
After the Disruption, preliminary letters from Dr Brunton of the Church of Scotland and Dr Charles Brown of the Free Church of Scotland reached the missionaries in India declaring that each church would continue Foreign and Jewish Missions. In contrast to the East India Company’s Presbyterian chaplains, all fourteen missionaries to India gave their support to the Free Church of Scotland. They well understood that they might forfeit the College provided for them, with its library, its apparatus and other furnishings. Morally and in equity these were the fruit of personal legacies and gifts made to Dr Duff. The honourable solution would have been to make these available for the missionaries of the Free Church of Scotland to continue their work and allow for the purchase of these buildings from the Established Church in as far as that was deemed necessary.
The committee of the Established Church rejected their approach. The work, however, had to continue and search was made for new premises in the vacation of 1843-1844. ‘From all sides, Hindus as well as Christian, Anglican and Congregationalist as well as Presbyterian, in America no less than in Asia and Europe, came expressions of indignant sympathy’. By early 1844 £3,400 had been received as spontaneous gifts.

The second College having been organised Dr Duff set about establishing branch schools in Baranuggui, Bansberia, Chinsurah, and Mahanad. Culna was retained. Some ten years later Dr Duff was invited to answer a question posed by Lord Stanley of Alderley.
‘Will you state what you would propose the Government should do towards the further improvement and extension of education in India’. Duff responded by recommending:
The gradual abolition of oriental colleges for the educational training of natives, liberating funds for the purposes of sound and healthful education.
The relinquishing of pecuniary control over primary or elementary education by the Government, thus achieving considerable saving.
That lectureships on high professional subjects such as law and civil engineering should be established on a free and unrestricted basis allowing attendance of qualified students from all other institutions and that, in Calcutta, a university might be established on the general model of London University, with a sufficient number of faculties in such a way as to stimulate and foster studies in Government and non-Government institutions.
The use of the Bible as a class-book in English classes in Government institutions, under the express and positive proviso that attendance on any class, at the hour when it was taught, should be left entirely optional.
The Government ought to extend its aid to all other institutions where sound general education is communicated.
These ideas formed the basis of the Educational Despatch of 9th July, 1854 signed by 10 directors of the East India Company and sent out to the Marquis of Dalhousie.
The College continued to grow. New buildings were provided and the school roll reached about 1,200, the students receiving instruction in literature, science and the Christian religion.
Duff was nominated by the Governor General to be one of those who drew up the constitution for Calcutta University. For the first six years of its history, Dr Duff led the senate. Of his leadership Dr Banerjea wrote, ‘To his gigantic mind the successive Vice-Chancellors paid due deference, and he was the virtual governor of the University. The curriculum he promoted for the university was broad in its extent. Against the trend of the time, Dr Duff insisted on education in the physical sciences and urged the establishment of a professorship of physical sciences for the University’.
Sir Charles Trevelyan strongly recommended that Dr Duff be appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University. In a letter to him he stated, ‘It is yours by right, because you have borne without rest or refreshment the burden and heat of the long day, which I hope is not yet near its close’. However, at the age of 57, it became obvious that the ill- health that had limited his activities from time to time required him to return to Britain.

James Cook British Navigator and Explorer
1728 - 1779

Captain James Cook (1728 - 1779) is a good candidate for the title of greatest explorer in history. He was impressive both for the scope of his travels and the meticulous detail with which he noted his discoveries. Besides being a great explorer, he was very enlightened for his time, showing a high degree of regard for both his own crew and for the various peoples and cultures he encountered.

He was a native of Yorkshire, England. After being apprenticed to a shipping family aged 17 he learnt his trade of sailing and navigation. Later, joining the Royal Navy, he was sent to North America where he was put to work surveying and mapping the St Lawrence River, and he quickly became well-known in the navy for the accuracy and detail of his work.

The First Voyage

It was in 1768 that James Cook was given his first command, The Endeavour. The expedition was to go to the South Pacific and take observations of the upcoming transit of Venus across the sun's face. Astronomers in the Royal Observatory wanted readings from different places on the Earth's surface, and they would then be able to calculate the exact distance of the earth from the sun. Also on board was Sir Joseph Banks, a scientist from the Royal Geographical Society who was to take specimens of the exotic animal and plant life they were to encounter. After leaving Plymouth, UK, The Endeavour sailed around Cape Horn, and up to Tahiti, where the observations were performed. After that, Cook turned his attentions to the second task, his sealed instructions. These were to search for, and either prove or disprove the existence of the presumed Terra Australis Incognita1, which geographers had speculated might exist in the southern hemisphere in order to 'balance' the great northern land masses.

He sailed south, and in October 1769 reached the eastern shores of the land that Abel Tasman had found in 1642 - New Zealand. His lookout boy first caught sight of the land from the crow's nest, and this point near Gisborne is known still as Young Nick's Head. The hostile reception he received from the local Maori tribe led him to name the nearby bay Poverty Bay, and he sailed around East Cape to a better reception in the Bay of Plenty. He moved on to the Coromandel Peninsula and observed the transit of the planet Mercury across the face of the sun while anchored at Mercury Bay. He continued around the North Island and through Cook Strait, which divides it from the South Island, and all around the South Island, mapping the land and thus demonstrating that these were two islands, and not part of any 'Great Southern Land'.

After spending about six months in New Zealand, Cook headed home. On the way he visited the shores of Australia. After landing around the present site of Sydney, he continued north along the coast over the next four months, narrowly avoiding being shipwrecked on the Great Barrier Reef along the way. Whilst doing so he collected specimens of the unique flora and fauna he encountered. They found so many specimens in one bay they named it Botany Bay (which later became a prison colony). Continuing through Indonesia and the Indian Ocean, after many difficulties and trials he finally arrived home in England in July 1771.

Another notable thing from this voyage was that Cook insisted that his men ate sauerkraut (pickled cabbage) and fresh fruit. He was the first captain who had stopped his crew from getting scurvy2, and understood what caused it.

1772 - 1779

One year later in July 1772, Cook was to set off on another circumnavigation of the world, in a ship called The Resolution. The matter of whether or not there was a Terra Australis Incognita had been considered inconclusive from his first voyage. This time he sailed through the Atlantic, around the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa and to the Antarctic ice pack before reaching New Zealand again in March 1773. He was to continue across the Pacific, discovering many of the Pacific Islands, and discovering a commonality in their language and cultures. He returned to the pack ice again, and, having disproved the existence of any great southern land, he returned to England via Cape Horn in July 1775.

After another year on land, he led a third expedition of discovery, with the object of charting a north-west passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific. He again sailed directly from England to New Zealand, and then North to the Cook Islands and on to Hawaii. He charted the coast of the present British Columbia and Alaska, before returning once more to Hawaii. This time he and his men were not made so welcome by the native Hawaiians. During a confused skirmish on the beach in Kealakekua Bay on the 14 February, 1779, James Cook, the greatest explorer of his age, and possibly of all time, was clubbed to death. The crew returned to England without him in August, 1780.

During his life James Cook had made accurate maps of lands which prior to his arrival had been vague suggestions. He discovered and charted countless islands of the Pacific, found hitherto unknown flora and fauna, and made contact with many complex native civilizations. His was the first expedition to cross the Antarctic Circle. He was the original voyager of discovery who boldly went where no one had gone before.
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Famous British Plant Explorers

Botanical Society of Scotland

On the 8th February 1836 a meeting was held at 15 Dundas Street, Edinburgh, the home of Dr John Hutton Balfour who later became Professor of Medicine and Botany in the University of Edinburgh, and Regius Professor of Botany, Keeper of the Garden and Queen's Botanist in Scotland. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the formation of a Botanical Society.
The discussions resulted on the l7th March l836 in the institution of
the Botanical Society of Edinburgh.
Throughout its auspicious history, the Society has had a symbiotic relationship with the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh; the donation in l863 of the Society's herbarium of many thousands of specimens and in l872 of its valuable library formed the nucleus around which the Garden's extensive Herbarium and Library have been built.

The Royal Botanical

The 1820s and 1830s saw several plant explorers come to California seeking plants as yet unknown to science; among the more famous were Johann Eschscholtz, David Douglas, and Thomas Nuttall. Very few collectors had come before, so it was nearly virgin territory.

Glasgow Botanic Gardens

It was mainly by Hooker's exertions that botanists were appointed to the government expeditions. While his works were in progress his herbarium received large and valuable additions from all parts of the globe, and his position as a botanist was thus vastly improved. He was made a knight of Hanover in 1836 and in 1841 he was appointed director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, on the resignation of William Aiton. Under his direction the gardens expanded from 10 to 75 acres (4,000 to 304,000 m²), with an arboretum of 270 acres (840,000 m²), many new glass-houses were erected, and a museum of economic botany was established. He was engaged on the Synopsis filicum with John Gilbert Baker when he was attacked by a throat disease then epidemic at Kew.
He was succeeded at Kew Gardens by his son Joseph Dalton Hooker, a rare example of an outstanding man succeeded in his post by an equalling outstanding son.

Scottish Plant Explorers

David Douglas 1799-1834

David Douglas is one of the greatest plant collectors and explorers of the 19th century. Many plants and trees that grow in Britain today come from the plant specimens that Douglas brought
back from his expeditions. The Douglas fir is named after him.

A Taste for Adventure

Douglas was a fearless explorer who had many adventures while exploring the unknown, and often dangerous, areas of North American. He brought back hundreds of new plant and tree species which transformed the British landscape. His collection of conifers (trees with cones) led to the creation of the world's forest industries. The Douglas fir bears his name, and reserves his place in plant hunting history.

Gardener's Boy

David Douglas, son of the village stonemason, was born in Scone near Perth. From an early age, he loved nature and the outdoors. He was just eleven years old when he became gardener's boy (apprentice) to the head gardener at Scone Palace. Several years later, he took a job at the Glasgow Botanical Gardens where he met the man who would help him fulfil his dreams.
Root to Success
Douglas went to hear the lectures of William Hooker, professor of botany at Glasgow University and a veteran explorer. They became good friends and Hooker taught Douglas the skills he needed to be a plant collector. When the Horticultural Society of London (now the Royal Horticultural Society) was looking for a new collector, Hooker suggested Douglas.
First Forays.

In August 1823, Douglas arrived in America. His first four months were spent in the vegetable markets of New York. After, he headed for Lake Erie and his first taste of the American wilderness. He collected so many plant specimens that, when he returned to Britain, he was a huge success.
Bigger and Better
The next expedition was much longer. His journey to the mouth of the Columbia River in Canada took him the long way round, via Madeira, Rio de Janeiro and the Galapagos Islands.

His journey ended at Fort Vancouver where he spent the next two years exploring the area. At first, he travelled with the local trappers and traders, but later with the native American tribes. He became a good friend of Cockqua, chief of the Chenook and Cochalii tribes.
Hard Times
In March 1826, Douglas began one of his toughest journeys - up the west coast of Canada. The weather was against him and, finding only deserted villages, he nearly starved to death. While collecting cones, he fell from a tree and injured his arm. To get back down the Cowlitz River in his canoe, he used his blanket and cloak as sails.

A Fateful Trip
Douglas wanted to see Alaska, and travel home via the harsh landscape of Siberia. He did not get far - his canoe was grounded in the Frazier River and he nearly perished in a whirlpool. Around this time, his health started to suffer and he lost the sight of one eye - caused by exploring in harsh landscapes and weather.
His last journey was to Hawaii, an island he was familiar with. During a morning stroll, he fell into a cattle-pit (used for trapping wild cattle) and was gored to death by a bullock already caught there. It was a tragic end to a remarkable life.

Who were the Planthunters

Plant hunting began in medieval times but botanists are still discovering new species of plants in unexplored areas of the world. In the 19th century, planthunters were paid well to bring back unusual and ornamental plants for the gardens of wealthy landowners. Their discoveries, however, were also valued for their contribution to botanical science.
Planthunters were daring, fearless and tough, and their lives are real adventure stories. Could you be a planthunter?

Cone Conundrum
When Douglas came across the Pinus lambertiana tree, he met with a problem. These trees were tall - some over 65.5 metres (215 feet) - and all the cones grew at the top. He couldn't climb that far and couldn't shake them down. In the end, he managed to get just 3 cones - how did he do it?
(Answer: In desperation, he grabbed his shotgun and shot them down!)

The Douglas fir
Pseudotsuga douglasii
A tall straight tree with spreading branches and thick, corky red bark

Forrest made a total of five expeditions and spent over 28 years collecting plants in south west China and Tibet. He got on well with the Chinese people and, using his chemist's knowledge, was able to treat many of them for various illnesses.
But Forrest had his own health problems and, in 1932, he died during a visit to the Upper Mekon Valley. Botanists and gardeners across Britain and America still value his work. The plants that bear his name record his achievements.
Forrest found...
Forrest fir
Abies forrestii
Evergreen conifer. The dark green leaves have a silver underside. Found in Yunnan, China
Acer pectinatum, sub-species forrestii
A type of maple tree from west China.
Rhododrendon Forrestii"

Rhododendron forrestii
Forrest discovered many types of rhododendron. This one grows low to the ground and has scarlet coloured flowers.
Himalayan asters
Grown in borders, rock gardens and wildflower gardens.
Iris forrestii
Upright fleshy plants with very distinctive, elegant flowers. This type of iris has delicate yellow flowers and comes from Yunnan in China.

The Greatest Britons of all Time

In November 2002, the British public voted to find the Greatest Briton of all time. Over a million people voted. Some notable non British entrants include two Irish nationals (Bono and Bob Geldof) and Freddie Mercury, who was born in Zanzibar to Indian Parsi parents.

Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill was a politician, a soldier, an artist, and the 20th century's most famous and celebrated Prime Minister.

Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel was an extraordinary Victorian engineer. He designed and
built amongst other structures bridges, ships, railways and viaducts.

Diana, Princess of Wales

From the time of her marriage to the Prince of Wales in 1981 until her death in a car accident in Paris in 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales was one of the world's most high-profile, most photographed, and most iconic celebrities.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was a British naturalist of the nineteenth century. He and others developed the theory of evolution. This theory forms the basis for the modern life sciences. Darwin's most famous books are The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man.

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was a playwright and poet whose body of works is considered the greatest in English literature. He wrote dozens of plays which continue to dominate world theater 400 years later.

Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton was a mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion.

Queen Elizabeth I
The daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Queen Elizabeth 1 reigned England from 1558–1603. Her reign was marked by several plots to overthrow her, the execution of Mary Queen of Scots (1587), the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), and domestic prosperity and literary achievement.

John Lennon
John Lennon was a musician and composer who was a member of the Beatles, the biggest rock band of the 1960s.

Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Nelson is the greatest hero in British naval history, an honour he earned by defeating Napoleon's fleet in the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar.

Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was a military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642–1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. He was Lord Protector of England for much of the 1650s, ruling in place of the country's traditional monarchy.

Ernest Shackleton
Ernest Shackleton was a British explorer of the South Pole who is best remembered for leading his crew to safety after the failed expedition of the Endurance (1914-16).

Captain James Cook
James Cook was an explorer of the eighteenth century, known for his voyages to the Pacific Ocean. Cook visited New Zealand, established the first European colony in Australia, and was the first European to visit Hawaii. He also approached Antarctica and explored much of the western coast of North America.

Robert Baden-Powell
British soldier who founded the Boy Scouts (1908) and with his sister Agnes (1858–1945) the Girl Guides (1910).

King Alfred the Great
King of the West Saxons (871–899), scholar, and lawmaker who repelled the Danes and helped consolidate England into a unified kingdom.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
British general and politician. Commander of British troops during the Peninsular War (1808–1814), he defeated Napoleon at Waterloo (1815), thus ending the Napoleonic Wars. As prime minister (1828–1830) he passed the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829).

Margaret Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher was the United Kingdom's first woman prime minister, and she held the office of PM for longer than anyone in the 20th century.

Michael Crawford -Actor Famous For Phantom of the opera.

Queen Victoria
Victoria's nearly 64-year reign was the longest in British history.

Sir Paul McCartney
McCartney was a singer, songwriter and guitarist for The Beatles, the biggest rock band of the 1960s.

Sir Alexander Fleming
British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928, for which he shared a Nobel Prize in 1945.

Alan Turing
English mathematician whose works explored the possibility of computers and raised fundamental questions about artificial intelligence. During World War II he contributed to the allied victory by helping to decipher the German Enigma codes.

Michael Faraday
British physicist and chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1831) and proposed the field theory later developed by Maxwell and Einstein.

Owain Glyndwr
The last Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales.

Queen Elizabeth II
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary), is the Queen regnant and Head of State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and fifteen other Commonwealth countries.

Professor Stephen Hawking
British theoretical physicist noted for his research into the origin of the universe. His work influenced the development of the big bang and black hole theories.

William Tyndale
English religious reformer and martyr whose translation of the New Testament was the basis of the King James Bible.

Emmeline Pankhurst

William Wilberforce
British politician. As a member of Parliament (1780–1825) he campaigned for the British abolition of slavery.

David Bowie
David Bowie, is a British rock and roll musician, actor, and artist who has had a profound influence on rock and roll from the 1960s to the present.

Guy Fawkes
English conspirator who was executed for his role in a plot to blow up King James I and the Houses of Parliament (1570-1606)

Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire of Woodall

Eric Morecambe Comedian

David Beckham
Beckham is a leading English footballer and a former star of the legendary team Manchester United.

Thomas Paine
British-born American writer and Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man (1791–1792), a defence of the French Revolution.

Queen of ancient Britain who led a temporarily successful revolt against the Roman army that had claimed her deceased husband's kingdom.

Sir Steve Redgrave
A British rower who won a gold medal at five consecutive Olympic Games from 1984 to 2000, as well as an additional bronze medal in 1988. As the only Briton ever to achieve this feat, he is widely considered to be Britain's greatest Olympian.

Sir Thomas More
English politician, humanist scholar, and writer who refused to comply with the Act of Supremacy, by which English subjects were enjoined to recognize Henry VIII's authority over the pope, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London and beheaded for treason.

William Blake
British poet and artist whose paintings and poetic works, such as Songs of Innocence (1789) and The Marriage of Heaven and [bleep] (c. 1790), have a mystical, visionary quality.

John Harrison
An English clock designer, who developed and built the world's first successful maritime clock, one whose accuracy was great enough to allow the determination of longitude over long distances.

King Henry VIII
Henry VIII is one of the most famous and controversial kings of England. His divorce from Catherine of Aragon, his first wife, compelled him to break from the Catholic Church by the Act of Supremacy (1534).

Charles Dickens - writer
Charles Dickens wrote some of the most popular and widely read novels of the 19th century, from Oliver Twist to A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations.

Sir Frank Whittle
English aeronautical engineer. Whittle was one of the first men to associate the gas turbine with jet propulsion.

John Peel
John Peel was a disc jockey on BBC's Radio 1 whose 37 years of broadcasting out-of-the-mainstream acts helped popularise reggae, punk and hip-hop in Britain.

John Logie Baird
A Scottish inventor, who in 1926 gave the first demonstration of true television
Aneurin Bevan
Welsh-born British politician who as minister of health (1945–1951) was the chief architect of the National Health Service.

Boy George - Singer

Sir Douglas Bader

Sir William Wallace
Scottish patriot who led resistance against the English and briefly gained control of Scotland in 1298.

Sir Francis Drake
English naval hero and explorer who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world (1577–1580) and was vice admiral of the fleet that destroyed the Spanish Armada (1588).

John Wesley
British religious leader who founded Methodism (1738). His brother Charles (1707–1788) wrote thousands of hymns, including “Hark, the Herald Angels Sing.”

King Arthur
A legendary British hero, said to have been king of the Britons in the sixth century A.D. and to have held court at Camelot.

Florence Nightingale
British nurse who organized (1854) and directed a unit of field nurses during the Crimean War and is considered the founder of modern nursing. (Although Florence was born in Italy, her parents were British and from the age of one, Florence lived in Britain).

T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
Welsh-born British soldier, adventurer, and writer who led the Arab revolt against the Turks (1916–1918) and later wrote an account of his adventures, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926).

Sir Robert Falcon Scott
British explorer who reached the South Pole (January 1912) only to find that Roald Amundsen had discovered the spot one month before.

Enoch Powell

Sir Cliff Richard
One of the UK's most popular singers of all time.

Sir Alexander Graham Bell
Scottish-born American inventor of the telephone.

Freddie Mercury Famous for being the lead Singer of Queen.

Dame Julie Andrews
A British actress, singer, and author, best known for her starring roles in the musical films Mary Poppins (1964) and The Sound of Music (1965).

Sir Edward Elgar

Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother

George Harrison one of the Beetles.

Sir David Attenborough

James Connolly

George Stephenson

Sir Charlie Chaplin

Tony Blair - present Prime Minister Leaving office in the next 6 weeks.

William Caxton

Bobby Moore English Football Legend.

Jane Austen - Auther

William Booth

King Henry V

Aleister Crowley

King Robert the Bruce of Scotland

Bob Geldof - Singer
The Unknown Warrior

Robbie Williams

Edward Jenner

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George

Charles Babbage

Geoffrey Chaucer

King Richard III

J.K. Rowling - Auther of Harry Potter

James Watt

Sir Richard Branson

Bono (Born in Ireland)

John Lydon (Johnny Rotten)

Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein.

Donald Campbell

King Henry II

James Clerk Maxwell

J.R.R. Tolkien - Famous Author of The Lord Of The Rings.

Sir Walter Raleigh

King Edward I

Sir Barnes Wallis

Richard Burton - Famous Movie Actor.

Tony Benn

David Livingstone - Famous Scottish Explorer.

Sir Tim Berners-Lee

Marie Stopes

The Presidents of the United States of America

The Presidents are elected every four years. They must be at least 35 years of age, they must be native-born citizens of the United States, and they must have been residents of the U.S. for at least 14 years. (Also, a person cannot be elected to a third term as President.)

The Presidents of the United States of America
In the order in which they served Alphabetical order Short table of Data

Abraham Lincoln
The President and Vice-President are elected every four years. They must be at least 35 years of age, they must be native-born citizens of the United States, and they must have been residents of the U.S. for at least 14 years. (Also, a person cannot be elected to a third term as President.)

President Party Term as President Vice-President

1. George Washington (1732-1799) None, Federalist 1789-1797... John Adams

2. John Adams (1735-1826) Federalist 1797-1801... Thomas Jefferson

3. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Democratic-Republican 1801-1809 Aaron Burr, George Clinton

4. James Madison (1751-1836) Democratic-Republican 1809-1817 George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry

5. James Monroe (1758-1831) Democratic-Republican 1817-1825 Daniel Tompkins..

6. John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) Democratic-Republican 1825-1829 John Calhoun.

7. Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) Democrat 1829-1837 John Calhoun, Martin van Buren.

8. Martin van Buren (1782-1862) Democrat 1837-1841 Richard Johnson.

9. William H. Harrison (1773-1841) Whig 1841 John Tyler.

10. John Tyler (1790-1862) Whig 1841-1845 .

11. James K. Polk (1795-1849) Democrat 1845-1849 George Dallas.

12. Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) Whig 1849-1850 Millard Fillmore.

13. Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) Whig 1850-1853 .

14. Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) Democrat 1853-1857 William King.

15. James Buchanan (1791-1868) Democrat 1857-1861 John Breckinridge.

16. Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) Republican 1861-1865 Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson.

17. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) National Union 1865-1869.

18. Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) Republican 1869-1877 Schuyler Colfax.

19. Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893) Republican 1877-1881 William Wheeler.

20. James Garfield (1831-1881) Republican 1881 Chester Arthur.

21. Chester Arthur (1829-1886) Republican 1881-1885.

22. Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) Democrat 1885-1889 Thomas Hendriks.

23. Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) Republican 1889-1893 Levi Morton.

24. Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) Democrat 1893-1897 Adlai Stevenson.

25. William McKinley (1843-1901) Republican 1897-1901 Garret Hobart, Theodore Roosevelt.

26. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Republican 1901-1909 Charles Fairbanks.

27. William Taft (1857-1930) Republican 1909-1913 James Sherman.

28. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) Democrat 1913-1921 Thomas Marshall.

29. Warren Harding (1865-1923) Republican 1921-1923 Calvin Coolidge.

30. Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) Republican 1923-1929 Charles Dawes.

31. Herbert C. Hoover (1874-1964) Republican 1929-1933 Charles Curtis.

32. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) Democrat 1933-1945 John Garner, Henry Wallace, Harry S. Truman.

33. Harry S Truman (1884-1972) Democrat 1945-1953 Alben Barkley.

34. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) Republican 1953-1961 Richard Milhous Nixon.

35. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963) Democrat 1961-1963 Lyndon Johnson.

36. Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973) Democrat 1963-1969 Hubert Humphrey.

37. Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-1994) Republican 1969-1974 Spiro Agnew, Gerald R. Ford.

38. Gerald R. Ford (1913- 2006) Republican 1974-1977 Nelson Rockefeller.

39. James (Jimmy) Earl Carter, Jr. (1924- ) Democrat 1977-1981 Walter Mondale.

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911- 2004) Republican 1981-1989 George H. W. Bush.

41. George H. W. Bush (1924- ) Republican 1989-1993 James Danforth (Dan) Quayle.

42. William (Bill) Jefferson Clinton (1946- ) Democrat 1993-2001 Al Gore.

43. George W. Bush (1946- ) Republican 2001- Richard Cheney.
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But hey, i'm the most scottish guy you could meet, my name being Scott Gordon Mackay (MacAoidh) but i love my beautiful country and country men/women :)

Mac :)
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