i also just graduated with a BS in CS last spring. My school is still very much focusing on C++. Even though the AP classes in HS are doing Java, the freshmen level courses at my school are still focusing on C++. I never took Java, even when it was offered as an elective. I think C++ is more powerful, and as somebody already stated, if you write the C++ code, it is equally portable to any OS. That is the purpose of the ISO standard. Don't use the system calls (esp what .net offers).
However, I am now learning C# by myself and it seems like a good language. If I were you, I'd learn C# as it seems like its going to be the future, at least in Wndows programming.
It depends where you want to be making money in this field. PHP is a great web scripting language, with mySQL. I rather do things in PHP than PERL anyways.
For Linux development I do things in C++/Qt.
For Mac OS X development I prefer the objective-C/Cocoa route.
Windows development I havent made up my mind yet on C# over C++. I prefer C++, but its awkward using .net features in that language, it doesnt seem natural. VB.net, though now a better language, its probably good for beginners.
But there is no reason why a beginner cant learn C++.
This was my textbook
used when I was in college. Though I used the 2nd/3rd editions, this is a great book, offers a lot of examples and explains the code very well. It is pricey but a good book to have for reference and to learn from.