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never done this myself but i believe you can record the movie with hardsubs into another file using vlc, which you can then use on your pen drive and watch on the tv with the subtitles set at a size you can see.
just for info, personally i stream my media directly from my pc to the tv so i can play anything on my pc and watch it on the tv, there are a number of ways you can do this depending on your tv and how you connect the pc to it.